REBT recent citations by Dr. Mike Abrams

Publications on REBT

edited by Mike Abrams, PhD

updated July, 2011

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

2010-2011

 “Oh, the humanity!”: Kurt Vonnegut and rational emotive behavior therapy's existential rejoinder to the irrationality of the human condition. Ward, Joseph J.; The Humanistic Psychologist, Vol 39(2), Apr, 2011. pp. 105-120. [Journal Article] Abstract: The frequent absurdity and enduring irrationality of the human condition has long been a subject of inquiry by philosophy, literature, and other traditional humanities. This article argues that expanding the disciplinary scope of this inquiry to include psychology provides a fertile field of ideas for how we can best respond to a condition that continually affects us all. Using an interdisciplinary approach combining literature, existential philosophy, and humanistic psychology, this article shows how particular works of Kurt Vonnegut illuminate existential principles of the popular form of psychotherapy, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, while suggesting an optimal response to our common condition.

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A systematic review of the literature on the use of rational emotive behaviour therapy in criminal justice work to reduce re-offending. Debidin, Mia; Dryden, Windy; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 29(2), Jun, 2011. pp. 120-143. [Journal Article] Abstract: A systematic review of the published literature from 1995 to 2007 considers the published evidence on the use of interventions employing Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in criminal justice efforts to reduce re-offending. Thirty-six studies are briefly described, summarised and appraised for research quality using a six point scale. Twenty-four studies were excluded from further analysis due to insufficiently rigorous or weak research design and method. Twelve studies were appraised as sufficiently robust to reliably inform the research interest. Further analysis of the studies indicated an association between negative emotional states and offending behaviour, some evidence of REBT effectiveness in treating emotional disturbance in offender populations, and mixed evidence of REBT effectiveness in reducing re-offending. It is concluded that interventions using REBT might be a promising approach for aiding criminal justice aims to reduce re-offending.

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A theory born in childhood. Hatcher, Sherry Lynn; PsycCRITIQUES, Vol 56(28), 2011. [Review-Book] Abstract: Reviews the book, "Rational emotive behavior therapy" by Albert Ellis and Debbie Joffe Ellis (see  2010-21512-000) and the video, Rational emotive behavior therapy over time by Ann Vernon (2011). As with Ellis’s autobiography, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy has been published posthumously (Ellis died in 2007) and was written with his wife, Debbie Joffe Ellis. REBT is described by the Ellises as a multimodal, integrative method of psychotherapy. REBT is described as useful not only for individual psychotherapy but also for group work and psychoeducation. The Ellises state that REBT can be applied across life stages and cultures and for a range of mental health problems, including anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, substance abuse, anger management, perfectionism, low frustration tolerance, personality disorders, relationship issues, geriatric problems, morbid jealousy, even “self- help” (p. 116). A glossary of key terms and illustrative case examples are included in this compact volume, although not without some redundancy in recounting basic elements of REBT theory. The voices of the authors vary between first-person singular and plural, since some of the work appears to have been authored by Albert Ellis (as I) and other parts by Debbie Joffe Ellis (as we). Language usage alternates between formal/scholarly and informal/spicy prose—though not so spicy as the graphic medical problems and personal escapades recounted in Ellis’s (2010) autobiography. It is welcome to have companion books to accompany the APA's demonstration videos; Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, along with the video Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Over Time featuring Ann Vernon, exemplifies one such helpful pairing. The six-session video presents the case of Katelyn, a 21-year-old undergraduate who reports problems with anxiety attacks and in her relationship with her mother. That talented and seasoned therapists such as Vernon engage in demonstration videos to illustrate the practice of major psychological theories is both helpful and brave, as it gives students of psychotherapy the space to feel they, too, need not be perfect (an REBT accomplishment in itself). Altogether, the Vernon video is enhanced by the Ellises’ book, and the Ellises’ book is well supported by its companion video.

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Frustration and discomfort intolerance: Introduction to the special issue. Harrington, Neil; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 29(1), Mar, 2011. pp. 1-3. [Journal Article] Abstract: The papers in this special issue reflect these different theoretical perspectives on frustration and discomfort intolerance. In the first paper, the authors review the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) concept of low frustration tolerance, arguing that it is best considered a multidimensional construct. In the second article, the authors present further evidence regarding the validity of the Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS) and support for a multidimensional model of frustration intolerance. The third paper reviews the evidence for the role of experiential avoidance and distress tolerance in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and self-harm, and outlines several important areas for further research. The final paper, also sounds a cautionary note regarding research assessment. The authors compared different behavioral and questionnaire measures of distress tolerance and experiential avoidance. These articles will stimulate further debate as to the nature of frustration and discomfort intolerance, and empirical examination of the relationship of these concepts with psychological problems.

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Frustration intolerance: Therapy issues and strategies. Harrington, Neil; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 29(1), Mar, 2011. pp. 4-16. [Journal Article] Abstract: This article aims to provide an overview of the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) concept of frustration intolerance. Therapeutic issues regarding these beliefs are discussed, including engagement, the use of disputation, and behavioral techniques.

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If you want a real solution, read Evolution of a revolution. Kassinove, Howard; Toohey, Michael J.; PsycCRITIQUES, Vol 56(6), 2011. [Review-Book] Abstract: Reviews the book, "Evolution of a revolution: Selections from the writings of Albert Ellis, Ph.D" edited by James McMahon and Ann Vernon (see  2010-21303-000). Albert Ellis, founder of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), wrote more than 75 books and 800 articles during his 93 years of life. McMahon and Vernon compiled 23 of REBT’s most important selections, written by Ellis and coauthors, to act as a guide to understanding the model from its origination to the present. Evolution of a revolution: Selections from the writings of Albert Ellis, Ph.D., will serve as a useful tool for anyone interested in learning about the philosophy and mechanics of REBT, including clinical psychologists, mental health counselors, social workers, and graduate students. Although it appears to primarily target therapists, it has the potential to serve as a self-help book for the educated reader and may also interest historians of psychotherapy. The 23 chapters cover Ellis’s perspectives on sexual deviation, thinking–feeling disorders, anxiety, shyness and inadequacy, self-worth, psychosis, self-actualization, and raising emotionally healthy children. Ellis and REBT are most well known for the ABC theory of emotional disturbance. Activating events (A) are appraised by irrational beliefs at Point B, leading to the C (consequences) of emotional distress and/or self-defeating behavior. Thus, Ellis most often wrote about changing the thinking of his clients and helping them improve by acting in better ways. Unfortunately, there has been little research follow-up that has evaluated REBT practice. Overall, Evolution of a revolution is Ellis’s life work rolled into one book. It is well organized and gives a solid overview of REBT. This book will broaden the reader’s knowledge about many of the intricacies that make REBT what it is today.

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Rational emotive behavior therapy. Vernon, Ann; In: Counseling and psychotherapy (5th ed.). Capuzzi, David (Ed.); Gross, Douglas R. (Ed.); Alexandria, VA, US: American Counseling Association, 2011. pp. 237-261. [Chapter] Abstract: (from the chapter) Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is the first cognitive-behavioral therapy to be introduced into clinical practice by Albert Ellis (1957/1975). Although thousands of counselors or therapists throughout the world have been trained in REBT, Ellis himself was one of the most significant promulgators of his theory. In its over 50 years of existence, REBT has been applied successfully to individual, group, marital, and family therapy for a wide array of problems. It is a well-established form of counseling or therapy that has been used successfully with children and adults in hospital and mental health facilities, as well as in industrial, commercial, and educational settings. Rational emotive behavior therapy has a strong philosophical basis as well as commitment to the scientific method. The interconnectedness of thinking, feeling, and behaving is central to this theory, as is the notion that emotional distress results from dysfunctional thought processes.

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The REBT Competency Scale for clinical and research applications. Dryden, Windy; Beal, Don; Jones, Jason; Trower, Peter; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 28(4), Dec, 2010. pp. 165-216. [Journal Article] Abstract: This paper presents the REBT Competency Scale which can be used in the evaluation of adherence to an REBT treatment model in clinical and research applications. The scale has been developed to map closely onto the REBT treatment protocol developed by Dryden et al. (A primer on rational emotive behaviour therapy, Research Press, Champaign, 2003). Based on this treatment protocol 21 core steps (tasks) were identified for effective REBT practice. Each step is operationally defined, the rater is reminded of how the step relates to REBT theory and practice and scoring criteria are established that enable a rating of the therapists performance of the task. The potential uses for and application of the scale in clinical and research settings are considered.

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Two REBT therapists and one client: Ellis transcript. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 28(3), Sep, 2010. pp. 118-129. [Journal Article] Abstract: In the summer of 1994, two of the most published authors in the field of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Albert Ellis and Windy Dryden, each saw the same client. The transcript of Albert Ellis is presented with slight modifications to protect the confidentiality of the client and those in the client’s life.

 

2009

 

2006 to 2009 - 1

A glimpse into the philosophical psychology and the pragmatics of REBT: A suggestion by Wessler. McMahon, James; Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, Vol 8(1), Mar 2008. pp. 95-116. [Journal Article] Abstract: From a comment by Wessler made in 2007 that philosophy could be at the center of REBT, the article takes a trip down memory lane concerning Ellis and his philosophical machinations over the years. Thereafter, there is explication of Heidegger's work as well as existentialism as crucible for REBT. Finally, the idea of using REBT as common language with a client is developed so that new possibilities are constructed within a therapeutic relationship. This writer's bias toward pragmatism was explicated.  


2006 to 2009 - 2

A Rational Emotive Behavioral Approach to Improve Anger Management and Reduce Office Referrals in Middle School Children: A Formative Investigation and Evaluation. Sharp, Shannon R.; McCallum, R. Steve; Journal of Applied School Psychology, Vol 21(1), 2005. pp. 39-66. [Journal Article] Abstract: Sixteen seventh and eighth graders previously identified as having behavioral problems earned significantly higher post-test scores on a test of REBT concepts immediately after participation in a Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) training program, and this knowledge was retained after an 8-week follow-up period (p < .01). Additionally, the 7th graders' post-test scores were significantly higher than the pre-test scores of the 8th graders (who served as a waiting control group). Although the number of office referrals did not decrease sufficiently to produce a statistically significant reduction from baseline to intervention or from baseline to follow-up, moderate to large effect sizes were found. Participants' level of rational thinking and (stated) action were evaluated through written responses to anger-inducing scenarios; rationality of stated actions increased and rationality of thinking increased for the 7th graders and decreased for the 8th graders. Children were successful in acquiring REBT-based principles, and to some extent, in applying these to reduce aggressive behavior. Recommendations for school psychologists in using a rational emotive behavioral approach with middle school students are provided.  


2006 to 2009 - 3

A solution-focused approach to rational-emotive behavior therapy: Toward a theoretical integration. Guterman, Jeffrey T.; Rudes, James; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 23(3), Fal 2005. pp. 223-244. [Journal Article] Abstract: A theoretical integration of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) and solution-focused therapy is described. It is suggested that the integrative conceptualization underscores these models' complementary aspects by addressing the limitations of each and enhancing their respective strengths. The clinical theory and process of the integrative model is explicated along with a case example. Directions for future theory building, research, and practice are considered.  

 


2006 to 2009 - 4

A synopsis of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT); Fundamental and applied research. David, Daniel; Szentagotai, Aurora; Eva, Kallay; Macavei, Bianca; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 23(3), Fal 2005. pp. 175-221. [Journal Article] Abstract: The article presents a synopsis on rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), its fundamental theoretical framework, its applications, and future directions. The paper is organized according to the following structure: in part one, REBT fundamental/basic research is discussed; in the second part clinical/applied research in REBT is presented, including aspects of efficacy and effectiveness, discrimination of disorders for which REBT works most effectively, and its relations to other therapies. Uses and misuses of REBT and their impact on research and future developments are presented as well. While it is true that REBT research has many shortcomings, the overgeneralization and/or magnification of the negative, and the minimization of the positive are dysfunctional beliefs that maintain the false idea in the field that REBT has few empirical studies and that REBT research is in serious trouble. A balanced approach, analyzing both the strengths and weakness, suggest that REBT has hundreds of research articles and that high-quality studies tend to support REBT's basic theory and efficacy. However, to strengthen this conclusion and to fully explore the potential of REBT, shortcomings of REBT research need to be corrected, and high-quality studies promoted. This is particularly important since, although effective, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies have not yet reached "the desired standard" of efficacy and effectiveness, as about 30-40% of people are still nonresponsive to these interventions Thus, REBT could be a platform of reinvigorating empirical studies on the efficacy/effectiveness and theory of cognitive-behavioral models of psychopathology and human functioning.  


2006 to 2009 - 5

Adapting REBT to the world of business. Criddle, William D.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 25(2), Jun 2007. Special issue: Organizational consulting for clinicians: Complementing clinical practice by working with companies. pp. 87-106. [Journal Article] Abstract: Although Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) was developed as a therapeutic approach in the field of clinical psychology, its very direct and pragmatic approach to enhancing human functioning makes it exceptionally effective when adapted to the sphere of consulting to businesses. However, to be successful, a REBT clinician needs to take into consideration the different culture, the different client, and the different types of problems one is faced with in the corporate world versus the clinical world. Clinical concepts and vocabulary had best be changed so as to appear more educational and business-like. Whether used in a one-on-one coaching situation, in a group setting with a team, or with a family business to resolve conflict, the overriding goal is enhanced functioning on the job and ultimately, increased growth and profits for the business.  

 


2006 to 2009 - 6

An experimental test of a core REBT hypothesis: Evidence that irrational beliefs lead to physiological as well as psychological arousal. Harris, Steven; Davies, Martin F.; Dryden, Windy; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(2), Jun 2006. pp. 101-110. [Journal Article] Abstract: While numerous studies support Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Theory (REBT), they tend to be limited by their use of correlational designs, simulated scenarios and self-report measures. This study tested a core REBT hypothesis in an experimental design using multiple physiological as well as psychological measures. Ninety patients from a medical practice were placed in a real-life stressful situation while holding either a rational, an irrational, or an indifference belief. Those holding a rational belief reported the greatest increase in concern whereas those holding an irrational belief reported the greatest increase in anxiety. Of particular significance, those holding a rational belief showed a decrease in systolic blood pressure whereas those holding an irrational belief showed an increase (diastolic blood pressure increased in both conditions). These results not only support the core REBT hypothesis, but also suggest a way to differentiate between beliefs and emotions by measuring physiological as well as psychological changes.  


2006 to 2009 - 7

Application of rational emotive behavior therapy to groups within classrooms and educational settings. Vernon, Ann; In: Handbook of cognitive-behavior group therapy with children and adolescents: Specific settings and presenting problems. Christner, Ray W.; Stewart, Jessica L.; Freeman, Arthur; New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, 2007. pp. 107-127. [Chapter] Abstract: From its inception, rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) has been educative in nature, its goal being to help people help themselves by teaching them positive mental health concepts. Early in the practice of REBT, Albert Ellis and his colleagues began applying the theory to children and found it to be a very effective approach (DiGiuseppe, 1999; Vernon, 1997; 2002). A long-time proponent of the application of REBT in educational settings, Ellis established the Living School, a small private grade school housed at the Institute for Advanced Study in Rational Psychotherapy (now called the Albert Ellis Institute). From 1971-1975, teachers presented REBT principles in the classroom to improve children's emotional well-being (DiGiuseppe, 1999; Vernon, 2006a). The purpose of this chapter is two-fold. First, to describe applications of REBT to children and adolescents in classroom groups through implementation of a rational emotive education (REE) curriculum. The core REE principles, implementation considerations, and specific REE lessons that illustrate the process will be addressed. Several other methods of reinforcing REBT principles in the classroom setting will also be described. Second, applications of core principles to various types of small groups (REBGT) in school or mental health settings with children and adolescents will also be discussed.  


2006 to 2009 - 8

Can rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) resolve their differences and be integrated? Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 23(2), Sum 2005. pp. 153-168. [Comment/Reply] Abstract: Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a pioneering form of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is part of the new wave of CBTs. In this article, I discuss the papers of Ciarrochi, Robb, and Godsell (see record 2005-15395-001), and of Ciarrochi and Robb (see record 2005-15395-002), who propose that REBT and ACT can be quite suitably integrated, and the paper of Steven Hayes (see record 2005-15395-003), the originator of ACT and of Relational Frame Theory, who is skeptical about the feasibility of Ciarrochi, Robb, and Godsell's proposals. My own view is that ACT and REBT significantly overlap in their theory and practice and that they can be successfully integrated if both therapies make some changes.  

 


2006 to 2009 - 9

Cognitive behavioural and rational emotive management of suicide. Froggatt, Wayne; Palmer, Stephen; In: Suicide: Strategies and interventions for reduction and prevention. Palmer, Stephen; New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, 2008. pp. 139-172. [Chapter] Abstract: In this chapter we focus on a unified cognitive behavioural model of suicidality, assessment procedures and a range of cognitive, imaginal and behavioural interventions. Therapist-client dialogue will be included to illustrate some of the techniques. A Personal Self-Harm Management Plan and assessment checklists have been included in Appendices 1 and 2 respectively, to be used in conjunction with the cognitive behavioural and rational emotive approach taken by this chapter.  

 


2006 to 2009 - 10

Confessions of a Novice Rational-Emotive Therapist. Weinrach, Stephen G.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(3), Fal 2006. pp. 145-154. [Journal Article] Abstract: Written from the author's perspective as a novice rational-emotive therapist, this article poses questions to the rational emotive-behavior therapy (REBT) community. These include questions regarding the essence of REBT; the sense that can be made of successes and failures as REBT therapists; what will REBT look like after the death of Albert Ellis; and d) what roles spirituality, religion and philosophy have in the lives of REBT therapists post 9/11.  

 


2006 to 2009 - 11

Cost-Effective Use of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy in a Public Mental Health Service. Gilbert, Monica; Cicolini, Tina; Mander, Anthony; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 23(1), Spr 2005. pp. 71-77. [Journal Article] Abstract: With the advanced deinstitutionalization of the treatment of the mentally ill, the public mental health services in many parts of Australia are facing serious difficulties in providing adequate community-based treatment to the large numbers of individuals in need. Overreliance on medication and a diminishing supply of suitably trained therapists may result in an increasing proportion of patients being denied the benefit of optimal treatment and care which should include evidence-based psychological and behavioral approaches. In this communication we describe a day program, designed and implemented in Perth, Western Australia, which combines individual and group therapy provision, and is closely integrated with both primary care and the specialist mental health services. The program provides an alternative to in-patient admission and is cost-effective by reducing the demand for acute hospital beds. It is acceptable to patients and produces measurable improvements in symptoms, functioning and subjective well-being.  

 


2006 to 2009 - 12

Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of cognitive therapy, rational emotive behavioral therapy, and fluoxetine (Prozac) in treating clinical depression: A randomized clinical trial. Sava, Florin A.; Yates, Brian T.; Lupu, Viorel; Szentagotai, Aurora; David, Daniel; Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 65(1), Jan 2009. pp. 36-52. [Journal Article] Abstract: Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of cognitive therapy (CT), rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT), and fluoxetine (Prozac) for major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared in a randomized clinical trial with a Romanian sample of 170 clients. Each intervention was offered for 14 weeks, plus three booster sessions. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores were obtained prior to intervention, 7 and 14 weeks following the start of intervention, and 6 months following completion of intervention. CT, REBT, and fluoxetine did not differ significantly in changes in the BDI, depression-free days (DFDs), or Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Average BDI scores decreased from 31.1 before treatment to 9.7 six months following completion of treatment. Due to lower costs, both psychotherapies were more cost effective, and had better cost-utility, than pharmacotherapy: median $26.44/DFD gained/month for CT and $23.77/DFD gained/month for REBT versus S34.93/DFD gamed/month'for pharmacotherapy, median $/QALYs = $1,638, $1,734, and $2,287 for CT, REBT, and fluoxetine (Prozac), respectively.  (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)

 


2006 to 2009 - 13

Counseling in schools. A rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) based intervention--A pilot study. Vaida, Sebastian; Kállay, Éva; Opre, Adrian; Cognitie Creier Comportament, Vol 12(1), Mar 2008. pp. 57-69. [Journal Article] Abstract: During the last five decades, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) (Ellis, 1955) clearly revealed its efficiency and flexibility beyond the clinical settings. An adapted form of the clinical model in educational environment is the Rational Emotive Behavior Education (REBE). By its structure and strategies, REBE strongly emphasizes the prophylactic value of the entire paradigm. In the present pilot study we addressed the matter of such an educational program and tested its efficiency in the Romanian high schools. We intended to decrease students' irrationality and offer them the chance to develop a more adaptive life philosophy, by changing the way they see and perceive things. To reach this goal, we used an experimental design with repeated measures. The results clearly confirm our hypotheses and sustain the possibility of achieving significant changes in the belief systems, emotions and behaviors, by using an REBE intervention.  

 


2006 to 2009 - 14

Criterios para evaluar la eficiencia: Hablan psicoterapeutas psicoanalíticos, conductuales cognitivos, rationales emotivos y psicoanalistas. = Criteria to assess efficiency: Psychoanalysts, cognitive behavioral, rational emotive behavior, and psychoanalytical therapists speak up. Lagos, Carla Mantilla; de la Fuente, Ximena Sologuren; Revista de Psicología, Vol 24(2), 2006. pp. 224-266. [Journal Article] Abstract: The article explores the criteria used to assess the efficiency of individual psychotherapeutic treatments with adults. In doing so it used the perspective of 40 professionals that represent 4 types of clinical interventions: cognitive behavioral, psychoanalytic, rational emotive psychotherapies, and psychoanalysis. In addition, it seeks to identify the similarities and differences among these with regards to above-mentioned criteria. A semi-structured interview was built and applied, exploring considerations on the efficiency of the treatments. The qualitative analysis resulted in twelve analysis topics and its corresponding answer categories. These were analyzed through descriptive and correspondence statistics. These criteria are numerous and highly variegated. Differences among the 4 groups are related to the nature of each therapeutic focus and its underlying theoretical paradigm. Psychoanalysts and cognitive behavioral therapists are the groups that are most differentiated between each other.  

 


2006 to 2009 - 15

Discussion of Christine A. Padesky and Aaron T. Beck, 'Science and Philosophy: Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy'. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 19(2), Sum 2005. Special issue: Cognitive Psychotherapy and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. pp. 181-185. [Comment/Reply] Abstract: The author largely agrees with Christine A. Padesky and Aaron T. Beck's (see record 2003-09599-001) article, "Science and Philosophy: Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy," disagrees with several of its statements about REBT, and particularly objects to Padesky and Beck's view that the fundamental difference between CT and REBT is that the former therapy is empirically based and the latter is philosophically based.  

 


2006 to 2009 - 16

Dying a 'good' death, the desire to die, and rational-emotive behavior therapy: Focus on aged African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos. Sapp, Marty; McNeely, R. L.; Torres, José B.; In: Human behavior in the social environment from an African-American perspective (2nd ed.). See, Letha A. (Lee); New York, NY, US: Haworth Press, 2007. pp. 695-713. [Chapter] Abstract: The purpose of this chapter is to detail a therapeutic model that may be helpful in providing competent, culturally sensitive services to African Americans, particularly those maintaining irrational philosophies of life who have reached or are approaching the final stages of the life cycle. Thus this article is directed particularly to practitioners who are seeking to recognize, understand, and adjust to the needs of a growing elderly clientele with distinctly different cultural belief patterns from that of mainstream European- American society. Demographic information is offered to provide comparative and trend perspectives. Discussed subsequently are developmental differences exhibited by African Americans in a social system that fails to honor neither elderly status nor the aging process and where age, ethnicity, and gender represent triple jeopardy for some African Americans. Specifically, rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is suggested as a tool that may be employed to assist African Americans to perceive death as a humanizing process and thus assist them to die with as much comfort and dignity as possible. Although the authors of this chapter believe that the prescriptions offered may be useful for at least some Latino subgroups, empirical research will need to explore the strength of this assertion.  

 


2006 to 2009 - 17

Effectiveness of rational-emotive education: A quantitative meta-analytical study. Trip, Simona; Vernon, Ann; McMahon, James; Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, Vol 7(1), Mar 2007. pp. 81-93. [Journal Article] Abstract: Research on Rational Emotive Education (REE) is not as prolific as in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), on which it is based. No quantitative meta-analytic studies of REE were found in the literature; in fact, we found only 6 reviews on REE. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of REE through a quantitative meta-analitical study. Twenty-six (26) published articles, which fit the inclusion criteria, were examined. Results demonstrated that REE had a powerful effect on lessening irrational beliefs and dysfunctional behaviors, plus a moderate effect concerning positive inference making and decreasing negative emotions. The efficiency of REE appeared to not be affected by the length of applied REE. Rather, the REE effect was strong when participants were concerned with their problems. Types of psychometric measure used for irrational beliefs evaluation affected the results. Effect sizes increased from medium to large when the subjects were children and adolescents compared to young adults.  

  


2006 to 2009 - 18

Effects of rational emotive behaviour and reality therapies on socialisation problems of visually impaired students. Eniola, Mike S.; Adebiyi, Adekunle B.; The Nigerian Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Vol 10(1), 2005. pp. 161-168. [Journal Article] Abstract: The study investigated the effects of Rational Emotive Behaviour of Visually Impaired Students. The study adopted the pre-test, post-test, control quasi-experimental design using a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial matrix. The subjects for the study consisted of 48 visually impaired students from Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo who were randomly assigned into treatment groups having been initially screened for socialisation problem. Finding revealed that the two therapeutic techniques proved effective at enhancing socialisation of visually impaired students. The findings have certain far-reaching implications for counselling psychologists, Special Educator Educational Administrators, parents policy makers and the Nigerian government.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 19

How cognitive behavioural, rational emotive behavioural or multimodal coaching could prevent mental health problems, enhance performance and reduce work related stress. Palmer, Stephan; Gyllensten, Kristina; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 26(1), Mar 2008. Special issue: Special issue on cognitive-behavioural coaching. pp. 38-52. [Journal Article] Abstract: This case study describes the therapeutic work with a client suffering from depression. A cognitive approach was used and a brief summary of the problem and the therapy is outlined. The client had suffered from procrastination for a long time and this was one of the key areas to be addressed in therapy. This case is presented to highlight that cognitive behavioural, rational emotive behavioural or multimodal coaching may be able to prevent mental health problems. It is possible that the client's problem with procrastination could have been tackled in psychologically based coaching at an earlier stage. Psychological coaching could have provided the client with tools to deal with the procrastination and increase her self-awareness. This could have prevented the development of the depression or helped the client to intervene at an earlier stage.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 20

Irrational beliefs and unconditional self-acceptance. I. Correlational evidence linking two key features of REBT. Davies, Martin F.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(2), Jun 2006. pp. 113-124. [Journal Article] Abstract: In a study with 102 non-clinical adults, relationships between measures of irrational beliefs, unconditional self-acceptance, self-esteem and the Big-5 personality dimensions were investigated. As expected, unconditional self-acceptance was highly correlated with self-esteem. In line with key tenets of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), individuals who scored highly on unconditional self-acceptance scored low on irrational beliefs even after self-esteem had been partialled out. Unconditional self-acceptance was found to be significantly (negatively) correlated with Neuroticism but not with other Big-5 personality dimensions. Irrational beliefs were found to correlate positively with Neuroticism and negatively with Openness. Factor analysis of the unconditional self-acceptance scale did not show a simple one-dimensional structure. A revised version of the scale comprising those items that did not load on a self-esteem factor produced a purer measure of unconditional self-acceptance that did not correlate significantly with self-esteem. The findings have implications for investigating unconditional self-acceptance in studies of therapeutic outcome.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 21

Irrational beliefs and unconditional self-acceptance. II. Experimental evidence for a causal link between two key features of REBT. Davies, Martin F.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 26(2), Jun 2008. pp. 89-101. [Journal Article] Abstract: In a test of two key features of REBT, causal relationships between irrational beliefs and unconditional self-acceptance were experimentally investigated in a sample of 106 non-clinical participants using a priming technique. Priming participants with statements of irrational belief resulted in a decrease in unconditional self-acceptance whereas priming participants with statements of rational belief resulted in an increase in unconditional self-acceptance. In contrast, priming participants with statements about unconditional self-acceptance did not result in an increase in rational thinking and priming participants with statements about conditional self-acceptance did not result in an increase in irrational thinking. The present study is the first to provide evidence of a causal link between rational/irrational thinking and unconditional/conditional self-acceptance. The findings have important implications for the core hypothesis of REBT and underscore the advantages of experimental over correlational studies in theory-testing.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 22

Logotherapy-Enhanced REBT: An Integration of Discovery and Reason. Hutchinson, Geoffrey T.; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, Vol 35(2), Sum 2005. pp. 145-155. [Journal Article] Abstract: Viktor Frankl's Logotherapy and Albert Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) are at seemingly opposite ends of the psychotherapeutic spectrum. However, a close review of the assumptions and philosophy of each school of therapy reveals that these two systems are compatible. We propose that a Logotherapy-enhanced REBT can increase human achievement and happiness by balancing the individual discovery of meaning with the pursuit of reason. This integrated and enhanced therapy will help human beings participate in positive life experiences and take greater responsibility for change. Fruitful and beneficial aspects of a Logotherapy enhanced-REBT are explored with respect to cognitions, emotions, and the reduction of rumination. Conclusions are drawn, limitations are discussed, and future recommendations are outlined.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 23

Methods of reconstruction with adolescent substance abusers: Combining REBT and constructivism. Adelman, Robert; In: Studies in meaning 3: Constructivist psychotherapy in the real world. Raskin, Jonathan D.; Bridges, Sara K.; New York, NY, US: Pace University Press, 2008. pp. 183-200. [Chapter] Abstract: The goal of the reconstruction of young lives given over to severe, chemical substance abuse requires more than personal insight and understanding. It requires a new philosophy for living, and the tools to facilitate adherence to that philosophy. How do we assist young people in arriving at that philosophy, particularly when they may not be motivated to give up drugs, reflect on their behavior, disclose to adults, or work toward personal change? The present chapter will seek to articulate and demonstrate an approach to adolescent treatment using principles of Rational-Emotive-Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Constructivist Psychology.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 24

Nine Experts Describe the Essence of Rational-Emotive Therapy While Standing on One Foot. Weinrach, Stephen G.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(4), Win 2006. Special issue: Stephen G. Weinrach and REBT: Discomfort and Collaborations: Part Two: Searching for Answers: Collaborative Efforts. pp. 217-232. [Journal Article, Reprint] Abstract: This reprinted article originally appeared in Journal of Counseling & Development, 1996, Vol 74(4), 326-331. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1996-00289-002.) Determined the extent of agreement among a panel of rational-emotive therapy (RET) experts about the essence of RET. The panel consisted of the 9 members of The International Training Standards and Review Committee of the Institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy in New York. The question asked of the experts was an adaptation of a Talmudic story known in Jewish lore as "While Standing on One Foot" (wherein a heathen said to a rabbi, "If you can teach me the whole Torah while I stand on one foot, you can make me a Jew.") Responses were assigned to either of 2 categories: general cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or RET-specific. There seems to be a range of responses that capture the essence of RET. A strong case can be made for subsuming many aspects of CBT under RET because much of what is associated with CBT has its origins in RET. The confusion about where RET ends and general CBT begins goes to the very heart of RET's status.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 25

Patients' initial doubts, reservations and objections to the ABC's of REBT and their application. Dryden, Windy; Hurton, Nicola; Malki, Debbie; Manias, Panayota; Williams, Katie; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 26(2), Jun 2008. pp. 63-88. [Journal Article] Abstract: This exploratory research set out to develop an initial framework and categorization scheme for understanding patients' initial doubts, reservations and objections to the ABC's of REBT and their application. 60 patients were asked to write down their doubts following a pre-therapy "Introduction to REBT" session. Subsequently, an emergent content analysis was carried out to identify main themes. The content analysis revealed five general categories, of which the two largest ones concerned theoretical doubts about the ABC model, and doubts about putting the ABC model into practice. Further sub-categorization revealed a variety of concerns that related to these categories. For example, a large proportion of doubts about putting the ABC model into practice were sub-categorized as concerning the perceived difficulty of doing so. In turn, this sub-category contained further sub-categories of difficulty-related beliefs.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 26

Post-September 11th Perspectives on Religion, Spirituality, and Philosophy in the Personal and Professional Lives of Selected REBT Cognoscenti. Weinrach, Stephen G.; Dryden, Windy; DiMattia, Dominic J.; Doyle, Kristene A.; MacLaren, Catharine; O'Kelley, Monica; Malkinson, Ruth; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(4), Win 2006. Special issue: Stephen G. Weinrach and REBT: Discomfort and Collaborations: Part Two: Searching for Answers: Collaborative Efforts. pp. 257-288. [Journal Article, Reprint] Abstract: This reprinted article originally appeared in Journal of Counseling & Development, 2004, Vol 82(4), 426-438. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2004-21338-006.) The purpose of this article was for selected Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) cognoscenti to examine the impact of the events of September 11th, 2001, on their beliefs about religion, spirituality, and their personal philosophy--including the role of evil in the universe and the implications of these issues on their use of REBT. The degree of consistency of the author's views with classical REBT theory and philosophy was examined. The authors are current or former members of the Albert Ellis Institute's International Training Standards and Policy Review Committee, of which Albert Ellis, REBT's founder, is also a member.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 27

Post-September 11th Perspectives on Religion, Spirituality, and Philosophy in the Personal and Professional Lives of Selected REBT Cognoscenti: A Response to My Colleagues. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(4), Win 2006. Special issue: Stephen G. Weinrach and REBT: Discomfort and Collaborations: Part Two: Searching for Answers: Collaborative Efforts. pp. 289-297. [Comment/Reply, Reprint] Abstract: This reprinted article originally appeared in Journal of Counseling and Counseling, 2004, Vol 82(4), 439-442. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2004-21338-007.) This is a discussion and evaluation of the views of the authors of the article "Post-September 11th Perspectives on Religion, Spirituality, and Philosophy in the Personal and Professional Lives of Selected REBT Cognoscenti" (record 2004-21338-006). Several of the authors are shown to endorse most of the main principles and practices of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) but also to hold some of its important views on unconditional self-acceptance and unconditional other-acceptance lightly and inconsistently.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 28

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy after Ellis: Predictions for the Future. Weinrach, Stephen G.; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Wolfe, Janet; Ellis, Albert; Bernard, Michael E.; Dryden, Windy; Kassinove, Howard; Morris, G. Barry; Vernon, Ann; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(4), Win 2006. Special issue: Stephen G. Weinrach and REBT: Discomfort and Collaborations: Part Two: Searching for Answers: Collaborative Efforts. pp. 199-215. [Journal Article, Reprint] Abstract: This reprinted article originally appeared in Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 1995, Vol 17(4), 413-427. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1996-20713-001.) The 9 members of the Institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy's International Training Standards and Review Committee (of which Albert Ellis is currently one) predict the status of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) after the death of Albert Ellis, its progenitor. Most respondents addressed whether REBT will exist in its own right or be subsumed under the broad umbrella of cognitive behavior therapy.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 29

Rational emotive behavior therapy and the mindfulness based stress reduction training of Jon Kabat-Zinn. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(1), Mar 2006. pp. 63-78. [Journal Article] Abstract: Important aspects of Kabat-Zinn's mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) are compared, point-by-point, with Albert Ellis' Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). There are some significant differences, since REBT does not advocate meditation as part of the therapy, and MBSR does not include disputing of irrational beliefs. But the similarities are even more striking, especially in the stress on self-acceptance, and in not judging people overall.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 30

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Successes and Failures: Eight Personal Perspectives. Weinrach, Stephen G.; Ellis, Albert; MacLaren, Catharine; Wolfe, Janet; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Vernon, Ann; Malkinson, Ruth; Backx, Wouter; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(4), Win 2006. Special issue: Stephen G. Weinrach and REBT: Discomfort and Collaborations: Part Two: Searching for Answers: Collaborative Efforts. pp. 233-255. [Journal Article, Reprint] Abstract: This reprinted article originally appeared in Journal of Counseling & Development, 2001, 79(3), 259-268. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2001-07830-001.) Provided a panel of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) experts with the opportunity to reveal where they succeeded and where they failed at applying REBT to themselves. 8 Ss provided personal examples of their successes and failures in written essays. The essays indicate that Ss actively talked to themselves both rationally and irrationally. There were far more shoulds, oughts, musts, and have to's in the narratives in which Ss described when they failed to use REBT than when they succeeded in using REBT. Rational self-talk was more prevalent in the examples of how REBT was successfully used by the experts.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 31

Rational emotive behavior therapy versus cognitive therapy versus pharmacotherapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder: Mechanisms of change analysis. Szentagotai, Aurora; David, Daniel; Lupu, Viorel; Cosman, Doina; Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, Vol 45(4), Dec 2008. pp. 523-538. [Journal Article] Abstract: Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies (CBT) are among the first-line interventions for major depressive disorder (MDD), and a significant number of studies indicate their efficacy in the treatment of this disorder. However, differential effects of various forms of CBT have seldom been analyzed in the same experimental design. On the basis of data collected in a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), cognitive therapy (CT), and pharmacotherapy (SSRI) in the treatment of MDD, the present article investigates the theory of change advanced by REBT and CT. Measures included to test the two theories of change assess three classes of cognitions: (a) automatic thoughts, (b) dysfunctional attitudes, and (c) irrational beliefs. The results indicate that REBT and CT (and also pharmacotherapy) indiscriminately affect the three classes of cognitions. On the long term (follow-up), a change in implicit demandingness seems more strongly associated with reduced depression and relapse prevention.  (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 32

Rational emotive behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and medication in the treatment of major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial, posttreatment outcomes, and six-month follow-up. David, Daniel; Szentagotai, Aurora; Lupu, Viorel; Cosman, Doina; Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 64(6), Jun 2008. pp. 728-746. [Journal Article] Abstract: A randomized clinical trial was undertaken to investigate the relative efficacy of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), cognitive therapy (CT), and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of 170 outpatients with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder. The patients were randomly assigned to one of the following: 14 weeks of REBT, 14 weeks of CT, or 14 weeks of pharmacotherapy (fluoxetine). The outcome measures used were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Beck Depression Inventory. No differences among treatment conditions at posttest were observed. A larger effect of REBT (significant) and CT (nonsignificant) over pharmacotherapy at 6 months follow-up was noted on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression only.  

 

 

  


2006 to 2009 - 33

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: A Tough-Minded Therapy for a Tender-Minded Profession. Weinrach, Stephen G.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(3), Fal 2006. pp. 169-181. [Journal Article, Reprint] Abstract: This reprinted article originally appeared in Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol 73(3) Jan-Feb 1995, 296-300 (see record 1995-37915-001). Objections to Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) seem to exceed the mere rational preference for one approach over another. Ziegler suggested that James's dichotomy between Tough- and Tender-Mindedness might explain REBT's appeal to some and its failure to attract others. REBT is a predominantly Tough-Minded therapy, but the counseling profession is largely Tender Minded. In this article, the author examines why Tender- Minded counselors may not accept REBT, what common misperceptions of REBT may contribute to this rejection, and how the two might be reconciled. Intervention strategies for Tender-Minded counselors are suggested.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 34

Rational emotive behavioral approaches. DiGiuseppe, Raymond; In: Counseling and psychotherapy with children and adolescents: Theory and practice for school and clinical settings (4th ed.). Prout, H. Thompson; Brown, Douglas T.; Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2007. pp. 279-331. [Chapter] Abstract: In this chapter, the author focuses on describing Albert Ellis' classical Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) and its distinctive features, strategies, and techniques and specifically how they apply to work with children and adolescents. The REBT approach teaches that disturbed emotional and behavioral consequences result from the irrational beliefs that individuals hold rather than from the activating events. The practitioners of REBT work to alleviate emotional disturbance by helping people to (a) identify their irrational beliefs, (b) recognize that their irrational beliefs are maladaptive, and (c) replace those dysfunctional cognitions with more adaptive beliefs. A case study and an annotated bibliography are provided at the end of the chapter.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 35

Rational emotive behaviour therapy. Dryden, Windy; In: Dryden's handbook of individual therapy (5th Ed.). Dryden, Windy; Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd, 2007. pp. 352-378. [Chapter] Abstract: The theory of rational emotive behaviour therapy has from its inception stressed the importance of the interaction of cognitive, emotive and behavioural factors both in human functioning and dysfunctioning and in the practice of psychotherapy. Ellis has acknowledged, in particular, his debts to theorists and practitioners who have advocated the role of action in helping clients to overcome their problems (Herzberg, 1945; Salter, 1949; Wolpe, 1958). Indeed, Ellis employed a number of in vivo behavioural methods to overcome his own fears of speaking in public and approaching women (Ellis, 1973). As this chapter shows, the most enduring psychological changes are deemed to occur when someone changes their irrational beliefs to rational beliefs. All the other changes mentioned tend to be more transient and dependent on the existence of favourable life conditions.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 36

Rational-emotive behavior therapy: A behavioral change model for executive coaching? Sherin, Jessica; Caiger, Leigh; In: The wisdom of coaching: Essential papers in consulting psychology for a world of change. Kilburg, Richard R.; Diedrich, Richard C.; Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2007. pp. 167-173. [Chapter, Reprint] Abstract: This reprinted article originally appeared in Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 2004, 56(4), 225-233. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2004-21677-003.) The authors suggest the use of A. Ellis's (1971, 1994) rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) as a tool to help clients effect behavioral change in the context of a coaching relationship. The article begins with a brief overview of REBT followed by an argument for its usefulness in an executive coaching context. The authors outline the therapeutic components of REBT that may facilitate executive coaching and discuss the circumstances under which REBT may not be appropriate.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 37

Rational-emotive behavioral interventions for children with anxiety problems. Wilde, Jerry; Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, Vol 8(1), Mar 2008. pp. 133-141. [Journal Article] Abstract: The purpose of this article is to provide detailed descriptions of specific clinical interventions that can be used by REBT therapists working with children and adolescents who are experiencing difficulties with anxiety. It is worth noting that anxiety disorders are among the most commonly occurring mental and emotional problems in childhood and adolescence. While a majority of publications focus on empirical research, there is still a need for articles that address clinical practices. REBT is, first and foremost, a system devoted to the practice of psychotherapy. Whether it is through articles focused on empirical research or clinical applications, the advancement of REBT is the ultimate goal. One of the most efficient anxiety management techniques involves the use of distraction in which clients are encouraged to substitute a calming mental image to interrupt the anxiety producing thoughts. This article also provides a detailed explanation of rational-emotive imagery (REI), which is a technique that employs relaxation prior to clients generating their own rational coping statements. Finally, a progressive thought-stopping technique is examined. In this intervention, the therapist provides successively less direction and guidance in the hopes that clients will be able to master this technique for use independently.  

 


2006 to 2009 - 38

Rational-emotive disputing and the five-factor model: Personality dimensions of the Ellis Emotional Efficiency Inventory. Blau, Shawn; Fuller, J. Ryan; Vaccaro, Thomas P.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(2), Jun 2006. pp. 87-100. [Journal Article] Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between three types of disputes used in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), and the five personality domains of the Five Factor Model of Personality. A sample of 194 subjects was assessed for the use of three categories of REBT disputes using the Ellis Emotional Efficiency Inventory (EEEI), and for the Big Five personality dimensions using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Disputing against "awfulizing" was found to correlate inversely with Neuroticism. Disputing against "self-downing" was found to correlate positively with both Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Disputing against "low frustration tolerance" was found to correlate positively with Agreeableness and Openness. Implications for REBT practice and research are discussed.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 39

Rationality and REBT. Still, Arthur; Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, Vol 6(1), Mar 2006. Special issue: Philosophy and Rational-Emotive and Cognitive Behavioral Therapies (CBT/REBT). pp. 5-10. [Journal Article] Abstract: This paper looks at the logical background to Ellis's use of 'rational' and 'rationality', and why this use is so relevant to the importance of REBT. It explores two fundamental and apparently contrasting usages, referred to here as disciplinary and emancipatory rationality (discrat and emanrat), and their interplay in REBT.  

 

 

  


2006 to 2009 - 40

REBT used with children and adolescents who have emotional and behavioral disorders in educational settings: A review of the literature. Banks, Tachelle; Zionts, Paul; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 27(1), Mar 2009. pp. 51-65. [Journal Article] Abstract: This article discusses the need for a comprehensive intervention strategy for students who experience difficulty managing self-defeating emotions and behaviors in educational settings. The review of the literature identifies related research and describes how the application of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), as a comprehensive educational intervention, has been implemented with children and adolescents who have been identified as having emotional disturbance in various educational settings.  (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 41

Reducing REBT's 'Wince Factor:' An Insider's Perspective. Weinrach, Stephen G.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(3), Fal 2006. pp. 183-198. [Journal Article, Reprint] Abstract: This reprinted article originally appeared in Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 1196, 14(1), 63-78 (see record 1996-03188-004). The author discusses three aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) that occasionally make him wince. They are: REBT does not adequately address issues relating to diversity-sensitive counseling; there is a tendency for some REBT adherents to display poor interpersonel skills, and lack a philosophical commitment to the interdependence of humans on one another; and, there is a tendency for REBT to promise more than it can deliver. A list of 15 recommendations and wishes for a "new and improved" version of REBT are included.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 42

Response to Ellis' Discussion of 'Science and Philosophy: Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy'. Padesky, Christine A.; Beck, Aaron T.; Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 19(2), Sum 2005. Special issue: Cognitive Psychotherapy and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. pp. 187-189. [Comment/Reply] Abstract: These authors appreciate Ellis' clarification that he encourages REBT therapists to use many of the same principles and methods used by CT therapists (see record 2003-09599-001). His assertions that many of these elements are done more frequently or thoroughly in REBT than in CT are best evaluated by objective observers via empirical analysis of therapy transcripts, session videotapes, and treatment manuals. Such research would have particular value if it linked therapy methods with treatment outcome and relapse prevention for particular problems. In this regard, Ellis' recommendation that REBT become more empirical is welcome. Also, these authors clarify the distinction they make between the terms philosophical and philosophically-based; empirically responsive and empirically-based. Finally, the authors applaud Ellis' major contributions to the field.  

 

 

  


2006 to 2009 - 43

Review of Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Integrated Approach. Maiden, Robert; Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 19(4), Win 2005. pp. 393-394. [Review-Book] Abstract: Reviews the book, Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Integrated Approach by Albert Ellis (2003). Over a 60-plus-year career as a clinical psychologist, teacher, and researcher, Albert Ellis has written more than 700 articles and 65 books. In his latest text, the second edition of Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Integrated Approach, Ellis has not lost any of his energy or intensity: It is as invigorating and clearly written as were his earlier works. In further updating his second edition, Ellis favors a postmodern view of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) that emphasizes the client's subjective reality; yet, he remains a firm believer in the pre-postmodern concepts of objective science and knowable reality. To further help clients in the difficult task of overcoming their resistances, Ellis expands and integrates REBT with such diverse theorists as Freud, Jung, Adler, Rogers, and Perls. However, Ellis's best suggestions come from his more traditional behavioral approaches. One tactic that is particularly helpful is to remind clients in as forceful manner as possible that they can choose to change their dysfunctional behavior or they can choose to continue to "suffer" the rest of their lives.  

 

 

  


2006 to 2009 - 44

Review of Rational emotive behaviour therapy - in a nutshell. Birtchnell, John; Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, Vol 79(2), Jun 2006. pp. 303. [Review-Book] Abstract: Reviews the book, Rational emotive behaviour therapy - in a nutshell by Michael Neenan and Windy Dryden (2006). This book is perfectly suited to the style of therapy that is described. The authors are concerned to keep therapy as simple and as straightforward as possible in order to concentrate the client's mind upon the job in hand. They maintain that therapy is not served by allowing or encouraging what they call client rambling. The book is divided into six compact sections comprising brief, clearly written paragraphs, with large, bold headings. These take the reader through the stages of therapy of a single, illustrative case, who may or may not have been an actual client.  

 

 

  


2006 to 2009 - 45

Review of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy: Theoretical Developments. Blackburn, John; Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 33(1), Jan 2005. pp. 122-123. [Review-Book] Abstract: Reviews the book "Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Theoretical Developments," edited by Windy Dryden (2003). This volume provides an in-depth examination of current Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theory and practice. The author presents the famous "ABCs" of REBT with the simple concept that evaluative beliefs mediate events to produce feelings, behaviors and thoughts. He shows simply and clearly that this construct is vastly more complex than appears at first glance. He also illustrates that the "things" referred to by the stoic philosopher are more than simply external events. Often criticized for over simplifying human psychological disturbance, the ABC construct is taken apart and reassembled to take account of primary assertion that the cognitions, behavior and emotions are essentially indivisible from the context in which they occur. All in all, this volume is for all Rational Emotive Behavior Therapists and Cognitive Behavior Therapists who desire to look more closely at their theories and practice, so as to develop new strategies in practice and research.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 46

Review of The road to tolerance: The philosophy of rational emotive behavior therapy. Gazibara, Tanja; Ross, Scott R.; Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, Vol 14(1), Feb 2007. pp. 118-119. [Review-Book] Abstract: Reviews the book, The road to tolerance: The philosophy of rational emotive behavior therapy by Albert Ellis (see record 2004-18904-000). This book provides an overview and philosophical analysis of one of the most influential forms of psychotherapy, Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT). Albert Ellis is considered one of America's most influential therapists. Overall, this book is effective in demonstrating the philosophy of REBT. Anyone, whether or not a practicing clinician, can benefit from this book because it describes an interesting and healthy way to view the world and life itself.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 47

Review of The Road to Tolerance: The Philosophy of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. No authorship indicated; Family Therapy, Vol 33(3), 2006. pp. 175. [Review-Book] Abstract: Reviews the book, The Road to Tolerance: The Philosophy of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy by Albert Ellis (see record 2004-18904-000). In this overview of one of the most successful forms of psychotherapy--Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)--its creator and chief advocate, the author, explains at length the principles underlying this therapeutic approach and shows how beneficial it can be, not only for therapy but also as a basic philosophy of life. As the title indicates, REBT promotes an attitude of tolerance, an open-minded willingness to accept the frailties, less-than-ideal behaviors, and unique characteristics of both others and ourselves. The author criticizes certain secular philosophies for their extremism, including Fascism and Ayn Rand's Objectivism, and he also discusses the ramifications of applying REBT in the social, political, and economic sphere. In emphasizing how easy it is for all of us to think, feel, and act intolerantly, Ellis shows that tolerance is a deliberate, rational choice that we can all make, both for the good of ourselves and for the good of the world.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 48

Review of The Road to Tolerance: The Philosophy of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. No authorship indicated; Adolescence, Vol 41(163), Fal 2006. pp. 585-586. [Review-Book] Abstract: Reviews the book, The Road to Tolerance: The Philosophy of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy by Albert Ellis (see record 2004-18904-000). In this overview of one of the most successful forms of psychotherapy--Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)--its creator and chief advocate, Albert Ellis, explains at length the principles underlying this therapeutic approach and shows how beneficial it can be, not only for therapy but also as a basic philosophy of life. In emphasizing how easy it is for all of us to think, feel, and act intolerantly, Ellis shows that tolerance is a deliberate, rational choice that we can all make, both for the good of ourselves and for the good of the world.  

 

2006 to 2009 - 49

Selecting a Counseling Theory While Scratching Your Head: A Rational-Emotive Therapist's Personal Journey. Weinrach, Stephen G.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 24(3), Fal 2006. pp. 155-167. [Journal Article, Reprint] Abstract: This reprinted article originally appeared in Journal of Mental Health Counseling Vol 13(3) Jul 1991, 367-378 (the following abstract of the original article appeared in the record 1992-02464-001): Responds to E. J. Ginter's (1988) challenge to the mental health counseling profession regarding theory selection. Responses are given to Ginter's comments on the practitioner's dilemma, the role of counselor education, misapplied humanism in theory selection, eclecticism, and a theory-specific instructional model. The author's journey in selecting rational-emotive therapy is discussed.  

 

 


2006 to 2009 - 50

Some final, gulp, 'words' on REBT, ACT & RFT. Robb, Hank; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 23(2), Sum 2005. pp. 169-173. [Comment/Reply] Abstract: After reviewing the target articles of this issue (see record 2005-15395-001 and 2005-15395-002), Hayes (see record 2005-15395-003) and Ellis (see record 2005-15395-004) respectively see less and more possibilities for integration. This concluding article attempts to better elucidate possibilities for integration between second and third wave CBT's, as exemplified by Rational-Emotive & Cognitive- Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). We suggest that if ACT is going to err, it will be in the direction of being too afraid of talk. If REBT is going to err, it will be in the direction of not being afraid enough.  

 

 

 

2005

Logotherapy-Enhanced REBT: An Integration of Discovery and Reason. Hutchinson, Geoffrey T.; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, Vol 35(2), Sum 2005. pp. 145-155. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Viktor Frankl's Logotherapy and Albert Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) are at seemingly opposite ends of the psychotherapeutic spectrum. However, a close review of the assumptions and philosophy of each school of therapy reveals that these two systems are compatible. We propose that a Logotherapy-enhanced REBT can increase human achievement and happiness by balancing the individual discovery of meaning with the pursuit of reason. This integrated and enhanced therapy will help human beings participate in positive life experiences and take greater responsibility for change. Fruitful and beneficial aspects of a Logotherapy enhanced-REBT are explored with respect to cognitions, emotions, and the reduction of rumination. Conclusions are drawn, limitations are discussed, and future recommendations are outlined. )

 

 

 

 

 

An Empirical Investigation of Albert Ellis's Binary Model of Distress. David, Daniel; Montgomery, Guy H.; Macavei, Bianca; Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 61(4), Apr 2005. pp. 499-516. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: In the current literature, distress is typically described according to a unitary model: High levels of distress are conceptualized as a high level of negative affect while low levels of distress are typically conceptualized as a low level of negative affect. On the other hand, Albert Ellis (1994) and some of his rational-emotive and cognitive-behavioral professional colleagues have more recently described distress as a binary construct composed of two different components: functional negative feelings (e.g., sad) and dysfunctional negative feelings (e.g., worthless). In two studies using 55 U.S. breast-cancer patients and 45 Romanian breast-cancer patients, respectively, we compared hypotheses derived from unitary and binary models of distress. The results revealed that in a stressful situation (i.e., upcoming breast surgery) high levels of irrational beliefs were associated with a high level of both functional and dysfunctional negative feelings while low levels of irrational beliefs were associated with a low level of dysfunctional negative feelings and a high level of functional negative feelings. Thus, that support for the binary model of distress found in both U.S. and Romanian samples suggests both the robustness and the generalizability of the results. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. )

 

 

 

 

 

Status anxiety. Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 39(3), Mar 2005. pp. 205-206. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book "Status anxiety," by Alain de Botton (2004). The author sets out to describe the origin of one form of human distress and makes some suggestions about how things may be better managed. Much of the thesis has been previously described by cognitive therapists such as Albert Ellis, who used philosophy as the basis of their contributions, albeit with less flair. Psychiatrists will also hear echos of Freud and Erikson. De Botton explains that status refers to one's position in society, and that high status means being cared for and thought valuable. Status anxiety is defined as a worry that we may not have achieved or be may be about to lose high status. The contribution of art to the understanding of status is examined. The Christian perspective of status is explored. The secular counterpart is identified as the Bohemian rejection of bourgeois respectability. Status anxiety should not be considered a new 'condition'. It is not clear whether this was the intention of the author. The book does not provide a new therapy, but it does provide a host of information and examples which can be grafted onto tired CBT or other psychotherapy. )

 

 

 

 

 

Demanding Brain: Between Should and Shouldn't. Tiba, Alexandru; Journal of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, Vol 5(1), Mar 2005. pp. 43-51. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Albert Ellis' cognitive theory of emotions makes a major distinction between positive and negative demandingness and preferences, but up to now there is no scale that makes this distinction evident. The main goal of this study is to validate this distinction by showing that positive and negative evaluative beliefs are separately associated with two distinct motivational brain systems: the approach/withdrawal systems. Participants (N=46) were tested with a modified version of the ABS II scale, allowing the distinction between positive and negative evaluative beliefs; subsequently they completed the BIS/BAS scales (Carver & White, 1994). Results show that positive demandingness and irrationality, but not preferences, strongly correlate with approach system sensitivity (BAS scores), while negative demandingness and irrationality, but not preferences, strongly correlate with withdrawal system sensitivity (BIS scores). This study suggests that individuals tend to develop positive and negative demandingness depending on the approach/withdrawal motivational systems sensitivity. Implications for emotional reactions and therapy are also discussed. )

 

 

 

 

Positive Emotions and Irrational Beliefs: Dysfunctional Positive Emotions in Healthy Individuals. Tiba, Alexandru; Szentagotai, Aurora; Journal of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, Vol 5(1), Mar 2005. pp. 53-72. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Since negative affect has been in the focus of attention for the entire history of psychotherapy, time has now come to turn towards cognitive factors involved in mild disturbances of positive affect. This article focuses on dysfunctional positive emotions and how they relate to evaluative cognitions and arousal. One of the basic assumptions of the rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) theory of emotions is that irrational beliefs lead to both positive and negative dysfunctional emotions. To date there is no empirical data investigating dysfunctional positive emotions and their relations to different types of irrational beliefs in healthy individuals. 35 subjects participated in this study. They were asked to recall a positive event in two conditions: a) pre-goal attainment condition, prompted by the instruction of recalling an event when a cue primed the anticipation of goal attainment and b) post-goal attainment condition prompted by the instruction of recalling an event and their reactions after they have met an important goal. After each experimental condition, participants completed questionnaires assessing, pre-goal and post-goal attainment positive emotions, arousal, dysfunctional positive inferences, context inappropriateness of the emotional experience, evaluative cognitions, and the ABS II scale-Romanian version. Results indicate that subjects high on demandingness have higher levels of pre-goal attainment emotions than low demanding subjects when they meet their goals, and possibly a higher level of post-goal positive emotions, when they anticipate attaining a personal goal. Also it seems that state and trait demandingness have different relations with positive emotions. We suggest that dysfunctional positive emotions can be differentiated by the context in which they are experienced, and that there are two types of dysfunctional positive emotions: a) post-goal attainment dysfunctional positive emotions referring to high levels of pre-goal attainment positive emotions after achieving personal goals, and b) pre-goal attainment dysfunctional positive emotions referring to high levels of post-goal attainment positive emotions when anticipating and moving towards goal attainment. Correlation analysis has revealed relations between evaluative cognitions, dysfunctional inferences, arousal, and dysfunctional positive emotions. Implications for positive emotions research and psychotherapy are discussed. )

 

 

 

 

The Role of Irrational Beliefs in the Rational Emotive Behavior Theory of Depression. Macavei, Bianca; Journal of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, Vol 5(1), Mar 2005. pp. 73-81. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: In the REBT theory of psychopathology major depression is associated with the endorsement of irrational beliefs. The present pilot study aims to extend the investigation of the major assumptions of the theory, by using a measure of IB (ABS2) that has good discriminant validity, allows the discrete evaluation of irrationality, rationality, demandingness, self-downing, frustration tolerance and awfulizing, and has been validated for the Romanian population. Subjects with major depression, subclinical dysphoria and controls were compared with regards to IBs. Results confirm that clinical depression is indeed accompanied by irrationality. Also, some IBs have been found to be associated with subclinical depressive symptoms. )

 

 

 

 

Roadblocks in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Transforming Challenges Into Opportunities for Change. Castro-Blanco, David R.; Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, Vol 42(1), Spr 2005. pp. 121-122. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This article provides a review of "Roadblocks in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Transforming Challenges Into Opportunities for Change" (see record 2004-00137-000). In the nearly 50 years since cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) models were pioneered by Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck, CBT approaches have enjoyed a wide range of applications and considerable empirical and clinical success. A frequent criticism of the CBT model has been that its approaches favor technique and behavioral change over the "substance" of psychotherapy (e.g., therapeutic alliance, resistance, engagement). Designed primarily for clinicians, "Roadblocks in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy" is well-written and easy to read. In keeping with the tradition of CBT, the authors rely on empirical research to support their tenets, while keeping the emphasis of each chapter on clinical utility. )

 

 

 

Cognitive-Behavioral Models. Howatt, William A.; In: Addiction counseling review: Preparing for comprehensive, certification and licensing examinations. Coombs, Robert Holman; Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2005. pp. 337-356. [Chapter] Abstract: Cognitive-behavioral theory emphasizes teaching the client how to take charge of his thinking and behavior. This chapter provides an overview of three major cognitive-behavioral theories that have influenced current counseling theories: William Glasser's choice theory and reality therapy, Albert Ellis' rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) and Aaron Beck's cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). In addition, under the umbrella of behavioral therapy, this chapter will discuss Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning, B. F. Skinner's operant conditioning, Albert Bandura's social cognitive learning strategy, and ten popular behavioral techniques. )

 

 

 

 

Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy: Theoretical Developments. Blackburn, John; Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 33(1), Jan 2005. pp. 122-123. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book "Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Theoretical Developments," edited by Windy Dryden (2003). This volume provides an in-depth examination of current Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theory and practice. The author presents the famous "ABCs" of REBT with the simple concept that evaluative beliefs mediate events to produce feelings, behaviors and thoughts. He shows simply and clearly that this construct is vastly more complex than appears at first glance. He also illustrates that the "things" referred to by the stoic philosopher are more than simply external events. Often criticized for over simplifying human psychological disturbance, the ABC construct is taken apart and reassembled to take account of primary assertion that the cognitions, behavior and emotions are essentially indivisible from the context in which they occur. All in all, this volume is for all Rational Emotive Behavior Therapists and Cognitive Behavior Therapists who desire to look more closely at their theories and practice, so as to develop new strategies in practice and research. )

 

 

 

 

Miesto iracionálnych presvedcení v prezívaní strachu. = The place of irrational beliefs in the experiencing of fear. Kordacová, Jana; Ceskoslovenska Psychologie, Vol 49(1), 2005. pp. 65-73. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Dysfunctionality of irrational beliefs is considered to be their fundamental characteristic. In terms of the rational-emotive theory they stand in the background of the negative emotional experiencing and are the cause of the majority of disturbed emotions. Among these is also an undue measure of anxiety, fear and diverse irrational apprehensions. The present study analyzes the causes of apprehensive attitudes and reactions, particularly their conditionedness by an individual's improper attitudes toward and his evaluation of fear-inducing situations. Proposed as an alternative are the rational contents of thinking in the form of statements that may help him to get rid of irrational fear or keep it within health and acceptable bounds. )

 

 

 

 

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Dryden, Windy; In: Comparative treatments for borderline personality disorder. Freeman, Arthur; Stone, Mark H.; Martin, Donna; New York, NY, US: Springer Publishing Co, 2005. pp. 105-132. [Chapter] Abstract: Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) was founded in 1955 by Albert Ellis. While it shares a number of theoretical and practical elements with other cognitive behavior therapies, it also has its unique features, some of which are particularly relevant in working with patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). REBT holds that patients with BPD have a number of cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal deficits and distortions to which they are biologically predisposed and which are exacerbated by their early and later environment. Therapeutic work with patients with BPD is challenging. The first challenge concerns the therapist's skill. The psychopathology of patients with BPD, including interpersonal oversensitivity and low frustration tolerance, often calls for a very skillful response on the part of the therapist, particularly in developing and maintaining an effective therapeutic alliance and in delivering REBT concepts and techniques. REBT theory argues that there are two forms of psychological disturbance: ego disturbance and non-ego disturbance. In regard to ego disturbance, an important goal would be encouraging the subject to accept herself unconditionally for her problems so that she can address those problems effectively. In the domain of non-ego disturbance, the goal would be to help her accept others as fallible human beings who sometimes make egregious errors and to tolerate better the frustration of having her wishes thwarted by others. Another goal would be to help her manage her disturbed feelings better and develop a range of self-protective behaviors when she feels disturbed. )

 

 

 

 

Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Psychopathology--Or Is It? Schmidt, James P.; PsycCRITIQUES, Vol 50 (11), 2005. pp. [np]. [Review] Abstract: In the book "Masters of the Mind: Exploring the Story of Mental Illness from Ancient Times to the New Millennium", Theodore Millon sets out to provide a panoramic overview of the theories that have been advanced to explain and treat mental illness from ancient times to the present. In his prologue to the book, Millon tells the reader that he will "provide a substantial understanding of each of the several diverse stories that shed light on both the nature and expression of the mind". Rather than espousing a single theory, his aim is to provide a neutral but sympathetic review of multiple theories, presenting each theory within the context of the wider cultural and historical era in which it arose, and then bringing it forward, through its various manifestations, to the present day. Millon emphasizes that he views these various theories as alternative rather than competing views of reality. He comments, "A major goal of this book is to rescue the history of the mental sciences from its warring sectarians". Sadly, I was left disappointed. First, I felt that the book fell short of fulfilling the author's promises. The goals set by the author for this book were, in my view, impossible to reach. Second, I felt that there were more fundamental problems with the book; a significant concern I have is with the decision-making processes underlying the selection of theorists and the relative attention given to their writing. Many readers are likely to question why relatively minor characters in the story, such as Kretschmer or Rado, are given as much attention as more key figures, such as Albert Ellis or H. S. Sullivan. Other readers will question why some individuals are excluded altogether. It would be wrong, however, to leave the reader with the impression that this book is without merit. The drawings throughout the book lend a certain charm, and the quotes of the theorists, although limited, are well chosen and generally interesting. Likewise, the book contains numerous pearls. Given its reasonable price, I think many readers with an interest in the history of theories in psychopathology will find it worth the cost, despite its flaws. )

 

 

 

 

The Incredible Albert Ellis. Corsini, Raymond; PsycCRITIQUES, Vol 50 (1), 2005. pp. [np]. [Review] Abstract: Review of the book, "Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy-It Works for Me-It Can Work for You" (2004) by Albert Ellis. This is a biography about the life of Albert Ellis, the father of rational emotive behavior therapy. The reviewer urged Ellis to include the word behavior in the name of his system, arguing that the rational emotive therapy was insufficient until one put one's thoughts into action-and at first he said that his associates would not accept it, but I told him that he must make this addition, and finally he agreed. This book traces this change and others in the history of this remarkable man and his equally remarkable approach to therapy. )

 

 

 

 

Rehabilitation Counseling Theories. Parker, Randall M.; Hansmann, Sandra; Thomas, Kenneth R.; In: Rehabilitation counseling: Basics and beyond (4th ed.). Parker, Randall M.; Szymanski, Edna Mora; Patterson, Jeanne Boland; Austin, TX, US: PRO-ED, Inc, 2005. pp. 117-153. [Chapter] Abstract: The term theory may be defined as a "set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena" (Kerlinger & Lee, 2000, p. 11). Counseling theory, then, provides a superstructure for counselors in developing a growth-producing relationship with their clients (Corey, 2001; Spruill & Benshoff, 2000). In the search for a personal vantage point in counseling with the rehabilitation consumer, the student and the practitioner can consider several dozen major approaches. The approaches presented in this chapter were chosen for their current and historical relevance to rehabilitation practice, as well as their prominence in the general field of rehabilitation counseling. Our review of theories of counseling and psychotherapy covers the following approaches: Psychoanalysis; Adlerian Therapy; Person-Centered Therapy; Gestalt Therapy; Trait-Factor Counseling; Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy; Reality Therapy; Behavioral Approaches; Cognitive Therapy; Eclectic and Integrative Approaches; Inclusive Therapy; and Environmental, Group, and Solution-Focused Brief Therapies. )

 

 

 

 

In conversation with Dr Albert Ellis. Halasz, George; Australasian Psychiatry, Vol 12(4), Dec 2004. pp. 325-333. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: In this article, the author interviews Albert Ellis, founder of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). This far ranging conversation explores the impact of his childhood illness, sibling relationships and parental divorce, teenage struggles with dating, the effect of Bertrand Russell, Hitler, Stalin and aftermath of the Second World War on his pacifist philosophy, Hornian psychoanalysis, religion, God, mysticism, his love of humour and singing as a 'shame-attacking' exercise and, of course, inventing REBT. (  Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

 

 

 

 

Twee studies naar psychometrische eigenschappen en normgegevens van de Belief Scale. = Two studies on the psychometric properties of the Belief Scale. Boelen, Paul A.; Baars, Louisette P. Y.; Gedragstherapie, Vol 37(4), Dec 2004. pp. 175-292. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Two studies examined the psychometric properties of the Belief Scale-a 20 item self-report measure of irrational cognitions as conceptualized within Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). In the first study data were available from 293 inpatients from a Dutch Mental Health Clinic ('herstellingsoord'). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that an 8-factor second order solution explained the data best. The factors represented 8 sorts of irrational beliefs that are at the core of REBT, whereas the second order common factor could be interpreted as general irrationality. The internal consistency and convergent and discriminative validity were found to be adequate. In favor of the construct validity, scores on the Belief Scale were found to decrease more in patients who underwent training in HEBT than in those who did not. In the second study, data were used of 80 bereaved individuals. This study showed, among other things, that the internal consistency, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the Belief Scale are adequate. In conclusion, the Belief Scale is a useful tool for assessing irrational cognitions in research and clinical practice. )

 

 

 

 

Rational Emotive Therapy With Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis. Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Nelson, J. Ron; Gutkin, Terry B.; Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, Vol 12(4), Win 2004. pp. 222-235. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This article systematically reviews the available research on rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) with children and adolescents. Meta-analytic procedures were applied to 19 studies that met inclusion criteria. The overall mean weighted effect of REBT was positive and significant. Weighted z-sub(r) effect sizes were also computed for five outcome categories: anxiety, disruptive behaviors, irrationality, self-concept, and grade point average. In terms of magnitude, the largest positive mean effect of REBT was on disruptive behaviors. Analyses also revealed the following noteworthy findings: (a) there was no statistical difference between studies identified low or high in internal validity; (b) REBT appeared equally effective for children and adolescents presenting with and without identified problems; (c) non-mental health professionals produced REBT effects of greater magnitude than their mental health counterparts; (d) the longer the duration of REBT sessions, the greater the impact, and (e) children benefited more from REBT than adolescents. The findings are discussed in terms of several important limitations along with suggestions for future research. )

 

 

 

 

Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Integrated Approach. Witt, Philip H.; Journal of Psychiatry & Law, Vol 32(4), Win 2004. pp. 543-546. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book "Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Integrated Approach, 2nd edition" by Albert Ellis (see record 2003-04406-000). In this book, aside from discussing the treatment of resistance, the presumptive topic, Ellis reviews the history of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), the relationship of REBT to other therapeutic approaches, and the wide range of techniques compatible with REBT. The reader obtains an overview of how Ellis's theorizing has evolved in the almost five decades that he has been promoting REBT. The author proposes that low frustration tolerance is at the root of much resistance-in fact, at the root of much emotional disturbance in general. The author also describes numerous techniques, some of which he freely borrows from other treatment approaches, for dealing with what he terms "lighter Irrational Beliefs (IB's)," such as inferences and automatic thoughts that lie just below conscious awareness, and deeper, core IB's, such as convictions of worthlessness and "awfulizing" of events that do not go as the client would like. Some techniques are clearly cognitive, perhaps the approach most associated with REBT and cognitive therapy in the public's mind. )

 

 

 

 

The cognitive and treatment aspects of perfectionism: Introduction to the special issues. Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(4), Win 2004. pp. 233-240. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The papers in this special issue touch on past themes identified in the contemporary literature, but the authors of these papers also raise some new issues. The basic premise that underscores these papers is that the irrational desire to be perfect involves a complex interplay of cognitive, emotional, interpersonal, and behavioral factors, and people debilitated by extreme perfectionism need an equally complex treatment approach. One of the papers involves a fine-grained analysis of the content of the personal standards subscale of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Another paper is a conceptual analysis that further underscores the link between the perfectionism construct and contingent self-worth. The third paper follows from recent attempts to link perfectionism with individual differences in attributional style. The fourth paper summarizes the results of a unique experiment that examines perfectionists' responses to failure versus success. The final paper is a unique investigation of perfectionism in cocaine abusing clients with co-morbid personality disorders. )

 

 

 


 

 

Shedding light on the relationship between personal standards and psychopathology: The case for contingent self-worth. Di Bartolo, Patricia Marten; Frost, Randy O.; Chang, Peicha; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(4), Win 2004. pp. 241-254. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Previous research has revealed some puzzling inconsistencies in the relationship of Personal Standards (PS) to measures of psychopathology. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that setting high Personal Standards will relate to psychopathology only when meeting these standards is a necessary condition for a sense of self-worth. We generated items that reflected a sense of conditional self-worth based on the meeting of Personal Standards and named this measure the Contingent Self-Worth Scale: (CSWS). Factor analysis of the CSWS and the PS subscale of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale yielded three types of Personal Standards: "Pure Personal Standards," "Success-Based Self-Worth," and "Activity-Based Self-Worth." Two of the original PS items did not load on the Pure Personal Standards scale. Correlational analyses revealed that Pure Personal Standards was related to measures of adaptive outcome whereas both measures of Contingent Self-Worth were related to more maladaptive functioning, although with some small differences. We call for further research to explore the relationship of PS to the construct of perfectionism. )

 

 

 

 

Perfectionism and acceptance. Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(4), Win 2004. pp. 255-269. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The present paper argues that there is both a positive and a negative form of perfectionism, and that they can be differentiated in terms of acceptance. The basic argument is that there is nothing unhealthy or dysfunctional about the striving for perfection as such--perfectionism, however, becomes dysfunctional when this striving for perfection turns into a demand for perfection, denned as an inability to accept being less than perfect. Positive perfectionism, in other words, is viewed as a dialectic combination of (a) a striving for perfection, and (b) the acceptance of non-perfection. Some therapeutic implications are discussed, and some directions for further research are pointed out. )

 

 

 

 

Dimensions of perfectionism and levels of attributions for grades: Relations with dysphoria and academic performance. Blankstein, Kirk R.; Winkworth, Gary R.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(4), Win 2004. pp. 271-299. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The current study examined associations between dimensions of perfectionism, levels of attributions for a self-identified problem with marks, and dysphoria and course final grade in university students (253 women; 125 men). Our study revealed several significant findings: (1) perfectionism and levels of attribution are distinct yet related constructs; (2) socially prescribed perfectionism and specific levels of attribution both accounted for unique variance in dysphoria; (3) there were significant gender differences with respect to the relations among perfectionism dimensions, levels of attribution, and dysphoria; (4) self-oriented perfectionism and specific levels of attribution both accounted for unique variance in final grade, but in men only; (5) interactions between perfectionism dimensions and levels of attribution did not augment the prediction of dysphoria or academic performance; (6) self-oriented perfectionism is possibly adaptive under some circumstances. Implications for treating perfectionists and for further research are discussed. )

 

 

 

 

Perfectionism, cognition, and affect in response to performance failure vs success. Besser, Avi; Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(4), Win 2004. pp. 301-328. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The current paper describes the results of an experiment in which 200 students who varied in levels of trait perfectionism performed a laboratory task of varying levels of difficulty. Participants received either negative or positive performance feedback, independent of their actual level of performance. Analyses of pre-task and post-task measures of negative and positive affect showed that individuals with high self-oriented perfectionism experienced a general increase in negative affect after performing the task, and self-oriented perfectionists who received negative performance feedback were especially likely to report decreases in positive affect. Additional analyses showed that self-oriented perfectionists who received negative feedback responded with a cognitive orientation characterized by performance dissatisfaction, cognitive rumination, and irrational task importance. In contrast, there were relatively few significant differences involving other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. Collectively, our findings support the view that self-oriented perfectionism is a vulnerability factor involving negative cognitive and affective reactions following failure experiences that reflect poorly on the self. )

 

 

 

 

 

Narcissism, perfectionism and self-termination from treatment in outpatient cocaine users. McCown, William G.; Carlson, Glen; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(4), Win 2004. pp. 329-340. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This study examines perfectionism in individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV, Text Revised [American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Text revision (DSM-TV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association] diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder and a coexisting diagnosis of cocaine abuse or dependence. Participating clients were treated in outpatient settings that provided cognitive-behavioral therapy. Clients were administered Hewitt and Flett's (1991b) [Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456-470] Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale prior to treatment. Scores for dimensions of perfectionism were compared with those obtained from cocaine abusers in treatment with diagnoses of Antisocial Personality or Affective Disorder. Clients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder were characterized by relatively higher levels of other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. Survival analysis suggests that self-termination from treatment by cocaine-abusing clients with a diagnosis of Narcissistic Disorder is related to high levels of other-oriented perfectionism. The clinical implications and limits of this study are discussed. )

 

 

 

 

The Irrational Beliefs Inventory: Cross-cultural Comparisons Between South African and Previously Published Dutch and American Samples. Du Plessis, Marilize; Möller, André T.; Steel, Henry R.; Psychological Reports, Vol 95(3,Part1), Dec 2004. pp. 841-849. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The Irrational Beliefs Inventory gives a measure of irrational beliefs, as postulated by Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior therapy. Given the increasing cross-cultural use of psychometric scales, it is important to assess whether the psychometric properties of the inventory are consistent across cultures. In the present study cross-cultural applicability, in terms of internal consistency and independence of subscales, was investigated for an ad hoc sample of White (n = 100, M age = 21.3 yr., 5D = 4.0) and Black (n = 82, M age=19.8 yr., SD = 2.2) undergraduate South African university students. Cronbach coefficients alpha for the subscales and Pearson correlations between subscales for American and Dutch students, as reported by Bridges and Sanderman, were compared with those indices for the South African students. The magnitude and rank order of Cronbach a, as well as the correlations between subscales for the three groups showed strong similarities. Values of alpha for the Black South African students were lower in magnitude on all subscales than those for American, Dutch, and White South African samples, but intercorrelations between subscale scores were consistent. Findings in the present study are supportive of the cross-cultural applicability of the Irrational Beliefs Inventory to White South African students but not to South African Black students. )

 

 

 

Idiosyncratic Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy. Paton, Irene; British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Vol 32(4), Nov 2004. pp. 579-580. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book "Idiosyncratic Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy," edited by W. Dryden (2002. For this publication each contributor was asked to outline 12 points of practice that taken together demonstrates their idiosyncratic practice of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). The reviewer's first impression of this book was of feeling energised and inspired by the richness and variety of ideas, most of which he could see being useful in his work. This book gives credibility and validity to practitioners' idiosyncracies and differences in applying the REBT model. As well as the emphasis on the uniqueness of the counsellor, there is also an acknowledgement of the importance of the client's needs. The index is particularly useful in this publication as it provided a means of finding and comparing the information from the various contributors. )

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy: A Behavioral Change Model for Executive Coaching? Sherin, Jessica; Caiger, Leigh; Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research, Vol 56(4), Fal 2004. Special issue: Trudging Toward Dodoville Part 1: Conceptual Approaches in Executive Coaching. pp. 225-233. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The authors suggest the use of A. Ellis's (1971, 1994) rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) as a tool to help clients effect behavioral change in the context of a coaching relationship. The article begins with a brief overview of REBT followed by an argument for its usefulness in an executive coaching context. The authors outline the therapeutic components of REBT that may facilitate executive coaching and discuss the circumstances under which REBT may not be appropriate. (  Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

 

 

 

Post-September 11th Perspectives on Religion, Spirituality, and Philosophy in the Personal and Professional Lives of Selected REBT Cognoscenti. Weinrach, Stephen G.; Dryden, Windy; DiMattia, Dominic J.; Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol 82(4), Fal 2004. pp. 426-438. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The purpose of this article was for selected Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) cognoscenti to examine the impact of the events of September 11th, 2001, on their beliefs about religion, spirituality, and their personal philosophy--including the role of evil in the universe and the implications of these issues on their use of REBT. The degree of consistency of the authors' views with classical REBT theory and philosophy was examined. The authors are current or former members of the Albert Ellis Institute's International Training Standards and Policy Review Committee, of which Albert Ellis, REBT's founder, is also a member. )

 

 

 

The theories underpinning rational emotive behaviour therapy: Where's the supportive evidence? MacInnes, Douglas; International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol 41(6), Aug 2004. pp. 685-695. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This paper examines the underlying theoretical philosophy of one of the most widely used cognitive behaviour therapies, rational emotive behaviour therapy. It examines whether two central theoretical principles are supported by research evidence: firstly, that irrational beliefs lead to dysfunctional emotions and inferences and that rational beliefs lead to functional emotions and inferences and, secondly, that demand beliefs are the primary core irrational belief. The established criteria for evaluating the efficacy of the theories are detailed and used to evaluate the strength of evidence supporting these two assumptions. The findings indicate there is limited evidence to support these theories. )

 

 


 

 

Group Psychotherapist's Handbook. Contemporary Theory and Technique. Sobanski, Jerzy A.; Archives of Psychiatry & Psychotherapy, Vol 6(2), Jun 2004. pp. 87. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This article reviews the book The group psychotherapist's handbook: Contemporary theory and technique edited by Irwin L. Kutash and Alexander Wolf (see record 1990-98774-000). The structure of chapters in the first part of the book reflects fundamental differentiation of psychoanalytic-related treatments - psychoanalysis in groups, psychoanalytic group therapy, group analysis, self psychology groups etc. are widely discussed. The second part of the handbook presents the neo- and post-analytic group psychotherapies including Gestalt and family approaches. At the same time, the behavior group therapy or rational-emotive therapy as well as psychodrama found their place in the volume. The greatest strength of this book is its extraordinary clarity in describing how to actually work with groups. )

 

 

 

Why rational emotive behavior therapy is the most comprehensive and effective form of behavior therapy. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(2), Sum 2004. pp. 85-92. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: I (Albert Ellis) started to create Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1953, after I stopped using psychoanalysis and was doing two monographs summarizing the 200 or so existing psychotherapies. I stopped calling myself a psychoanalyst because I found that, instead of being more intensive than other therapies, it intensively investigated innumerable irrelevancies and failed to uncover the real reasons why people were disturbed and what they could effectively do to make themselves less dysfunctional. It was especially deficient in behavioral homework assignments that I found essential for helping clients feel better, get better, and stay better. It also lacked emotional-experiential exercises, which I started using when my clients were stuck with whining about the "horrors" of their early childhood and were resisting my efforts to help them by my using role playing and other dramatic-evocative methods. (  Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

 

 

 

Irrational beliefs and basic assumptions in bereaved university students: A comparison study. Boelen, Paul A.; Kip, Hanneke J.; Voorsluijs, Jeanine J.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(2), Sum 2004. pp. 111-129. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Several authors have argued that the loss of a loved one triggers changes in people's beliefs and assumptions, and that these changes play a role in emotional problems after bereavement. The present study was an attempt to investigate these hypotheses. 30 students who had been confronted with the death of a parent or sibling, on average nearly 3 years ago, were compared with 30 nonbereaved matched control subjects on different measures assessing basic assumptions and irrational beliefs as denned in REBT. In line with the notion that bereavement has an impact on people's basic assumptions, results showed that bereaved students had a less positive view of the meaningfulness of the world and the worthiness of the self than their nonbereaved counterparts. Also, in accord with the notion that the tendency to think irrationally is likely to increase after a stressful life event, the bereaved were found to have higher levels of irrational thinking. Furthermore, it was found that the degree to which bereaved individuals endorsed general as well as bereavement-specific irrational beliefs was significantly associated with the intensity of symptoms of traumatic grief. Conversely, none of the basic assumptions was associated with traumatic grief. (  Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

 

 

 

Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy Integrated Approach (2nd ed.). Paton, Irene; British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Vol 32(2), May 2004. pp. 255-256. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book, "Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy Integrated Approach (2nd ed.)," by A. Ellis (see record 2003-04406-000). The author has described himself as the father of Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) and the grandfather of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Whilst the formulations of REBTand CBTare stressed, he considers this book to be more wideranging than the first edition in that he shows how these formulations 'can be added to and integrated with other therapeutic practices'. There appears to be a two-way relationship between how REBT has integrated other leading schools of therapy into the REBT model and how REBT can be integrated with other modes of therapy. The inclusion of ways other practitioners have used and adapted the model enriches this publication. The reviewer appreciates the section on the use of humour and his humorous songs. He recommends this book to all practitioners who want to extend their toolkit for use with resistant clients as it offers new approaches both to our clients' resistance and to ways in which the practitioner might also contribute to this phenomena. (  Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

 

 

 

Modificazioni psicopatologiche al trattamento cognitivo-comportamentale in 33 soggetti con Disturbo Ossessivo Compulsivo. = Psychopathological modification after cognitive behaviour treatment of obsessive-compulsive patients. Savron, Gianni; Bartolucci, Giovanna; Pitti, Paolo; Rivista di Psichiatria, Vol 39(3), May-Jun 2004. pp. 171-183. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of cognitive behavioural treatment of obsessive-compulsive patients. Material and methods: Forty patients with DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive disorder were treated by exposure and response prevention. Rational Emotive Therapy and thought stopping. The patients were assessed before and after treatment (16 sessions-every week) using self rating scales (SQ, IAS, EIS, FQ, ASI, CCL, SSQ, SE-oc, TPQ) and assessor rating scales (CID, CPRS, subscale), by another clinical psychologist who did not take part in the treatment. Results: Seven patients dropped out of treatment, in the remaining 33 patients there was a significant decrease in most of the scales including TPQ harm avoidance dimension, except the SSQ, SQ hostility scale and FQ phobia scale. In 10 of 22 patients that used pharmacotherapy the drugs were gradually tapered and discontinued; 27 of the 33 patients were judged clinically improved. Eleven patients have been treated only with a psychotherapy, and had the same results. Conclusion: The results lend support to the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of OCD and confirm the relation between anxiety and depression in OCD patients. The anxiety sensitivity may play a role in OC symptomatology. In spite of the insignificant modification in the hostility, social situations and global phobia dimension, the findings highlight how CBT may also affect psychological variables such as illness attitude, emotional inhibition and somatic symptoms that are not directly related to OC symptomattology. )

 

 

 

Integrating Therapies. Moore, Robert H.; Dryden, Windy; Frater, Alex; In: Beyond conversations on traumatic incident reduction. Volkman, Victor R.; Ann Arbor, MI, US: Loving Healing Press, 2004. pp. 155-179. [Chapter] Abstract: "TIR and Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT): A Conversation with Robert H. Moore, Ph.D" / Robert H. Moore / Moore, who is well-versed in Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) provides insights on how lessons learned from TIR can influence an REBT practice. "A Conversation with Windy Dryden, Ph.D" / Windy Dryden / Dryden also describes integration of REBT with TIR. "Using TIR in a Psychotherapy Practice: A Conversation with Alex Frater" / Alex Frater / Frater describes the use of TIR, REBT, and Thought Field Therapy in a psychotherapy practice. "TIR and EFT: A Practitioner's Perspective A Conversation with Marian Volkman" / Marian Volkman / Volkman describes the use of TIR and EFT (emotional freedom technique) in her private practice. "TIR and EMDR: Notes from the Field" / Victor R. Volkman / Describes similarities and differences in TIR and EMDR. "Comparing TIR and Other Techniques" / Frank A. Gerbode / Gerbode compares TIR with other techniques, such as EMDR, V/KD, DTE (direct therapeutic exposure), and TFT. )

 

 

 

A Mormon rational emotive behavior therapist attempts Qur'anic rational emotive behavior therapy. Nielsen, Stevan Lars; In: Casebook for a spiritual strategy in counseling and psychotherapy. Richards, P. Scott; Dept of Counseling Psychology & Special Education; Brigham Young U; Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2004. pp. 213-230. [Chapter] Abstract: This chapter describes using the Qur'an with rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) to treat a 24-year-old Muslim woman. The client described symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder, including fear during a rape, later flashbacks, nightmares, and sudden physiological arousal, as well as symptoms consistent with a major depressive episode. Following 38 treatment sessions using Qur'anic rational emotive behavior therapy, the client reported that she was doing well and was close to finishing her doctorate in biochemistry at Brigham Young University. The relevance of the psychotherapist's theistic stance to the client's outcome is discussed. )

 

 

 

Rational emotive behavior therapy for disturbance about sexual orientation. Johnson, W. Brad; In: Casebook for a spiritual strategy in counseling and psychotherapy. Richards, P. Scott; Dept of Counseling Psychology & Special Education; Brigham Young U; Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2004. pp. 247-265. [Chapter] Abstract: This chapter presents a case study in which the therapist, who integrates his Christian faith with his clinical psychology practice, describes rational emotive behavior therapy for a 17-year-old male student with major depression and distress about his primarily homosexual orientation. The author states that the four months of treatment helped the client understand how to apply rational emotive behavior therapy himself, and how to be kinder and gentler to himself as a Christian man struggling with reconciliation of sexual orientation and religious beliefs regarding sexuality. The case highlights the ethical and professional challenges inherent in treating a religious client when the therapist does not share salient elements of the client's worldview, and in fact may see some aspects of the client's religiousness as connected to his or her disturbance. )

 

 

 

Misconceptions and the cognitive therapies. Raimy, Victor; In: Cognition and psychotherapy (2nd ed.). Freeman, Arthur; Mahoney, Michael J.; DeVito, Paul; Martin, Donna; New York, NY, US: Springer Publishing Co, 2004. pp. 165-184. [Chapter] Abstract: Cognitive therapists have suggested many terms for the faulty beliefs or cognitions that constitute the core targets of a cognitive therapy. The author prefers the term misconceptions but feels equally at home with irrational beliefs or faulty assumptions. The author discusses three major misconceptions or clusters of misconceptions. They are phrenophobia, or the belief that one is verging on insanity; the Special Person misconception, or the notion that one is a superior person with special entitlements; and the incapability misconception, or the false belief that one lacks certain capabilities that most others possess. Although faulty beliefs have played a prominent role in psychotherapy, they have been competing with the emotions for the role of principal villain of the psychological disorders. )

 

 

 

 

Expanding the ABCs of rational emotive behavior therapy. Ellis, Albert; In: Cognition and psychotherapy (2nd ed.). Freeman, Arthur; Mahoney, Michael J.; DeVito, Paul; Martin, Donna; New York, NY, US: Springer Publishing Co, 2004. pp. 185-196. [Chapter] Abstract: Demonstrates that A (Activating events), B (Beliefs), and C (Cognitive, emotive, and behavioral consequences) are interactive. Thoughts significantly affect feelings and behaviors, emotions significantly affect thoughts and behaviors, and behaviors significantly affect thoughts and feelings. In Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), we are mainly concerned with people's emotional disturbances--both their primary and secondary disturbances. But the ABC theory also is a personality theory that shows how people partly create their own normal or healthy (positive and negative) feelings and how they can change them if they wish to and work at doing so. The author hopes that the formulations in this chapter will add to the ABC theory and make it more complex and more useful. )

 

 

 

Status anxiety. Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 39(3), Mar 2005. pp. 205-206. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book "Status anxiety," by Alain de Botton (2004). The author sets out to describe the origin of one form of human distress and makes some suggestions about how things may be better managed. Much of the thesis has been previously described by cognitive therapists such as Albert Ellis, who used philosophy as the basis of their contributions, albeit with less flair. Psychiatrists will also hear echos of Freud and Erikson. De Botton explains that status refers to one's position in society, and that high status means being cared for and thought valuable. Status anxiety is defined as a worry that we may not have achieved or be may be about to lose high status. The contribution of art to the understanding of status is examined. The Christian perspective of status is explored. The secular counterpart is identified as the Bohemian rejection of bourgeois respectability. Status anxiety should not be considered a new 'condition'. It is not clear whether this was the intention of the author. The book does not provide a new therapy, but it does provide a host of information and examples which can be grafted onto tired CBT or other psychotherapy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy: Theoretical Developments. Blackburn, John; Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 33(1), Jan 2005. pp. 122-123. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book "Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Theoretical Developments," edited by Windy Dryden (2003). This volume provides an in-depth examination of current Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theory and practice. The author presents the famous "ABCs" of REBT with the simple concept that evaluative beliefs mediate events to produce feelings, behaviors and thoughts. He shows simply and clearly that this construct is vastly more complex than appears at first glance. He also illustrates that the "things" referred to by the stoic philosopher are more than simply external events. Often criticized for over simplifying human psychological disturbance, the ABC construct is taken apart and reassembled to take account of primary assertion that the cognitions, behavior and emotions are essentially indivisible from the context in which they occur. All in all, this volume is for all Rational Emotive Behavior Therapists and Cognitive Behavior Therapists who desire to look more closely at their theories and practice, so as to develop new strategies in practice and research.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Incredible Albert Ellis. Corsini, Raymond; PsycCRITIQUES, Vol 50 (1), 2005. pp. [np]. [Review] Abstract: Review of the book, "Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy-It Works for Me-It Can Work for You" (2004) by Albert Ellis. This is a biography about the life of Albert Ellis, the father of rational emotive behavior therapy. The reviewer urged Ellis to include the word behavior in the name of his system, arguing that the rational emotive therapy was insufficient until one put one's thoughts into action-and at first he said that his associates would not accept it, but I told him that he must make this addition, and finally he agreed. This book traces this change and others in the history of this remarkable man and his equally remarkable approach to therapy.

 

 

 

 


 

2004

 

In conversation with Dr Albert Ellis. Halasz, George; Australasian Psychiatry, Vol 12(4), Dec 2004. pp. 325-333. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: In this article, the author interviews Albert Ellis, founder of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). This far ranging conversation explores the impact of his childhood illness, sibling relationships and parental divorce, teenage struggles with dating, the effect of Bertrand Russell, Hitler, Stalin and aftermath of the Second World War on his pacifist philosophy, Hornian psychoanalysis, religion, God, mysticism, his love of humour and singing as a 'shame-attacking' exercise and, of course, inventing REBT.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Comparative treatments of depression. Moore, Glenda A.; Davey, Debrynda B.; Issues in Mental Health Nursing, Vol 25(8), Dec 2004. pp. 843-845. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book, "Comparative treatments of depression," by Mark A. Reinecke and Michael R. Davison (see record 2002-17209-000). This book focuses mainly on nonpharmacological approaches to the treatment of depression. The book begins with an excellent chapter on a comparison of various treatments for depression along with a discussion about factors inherent in the etiology of depression: biological/genetic, interpersonal/ environmental, developmental history, and social-cognitive variables. The following chapter presents an overview of research on depression. Cultural considerations when treating patients with depressive disorders are clearly presented in the third chapter. The authors discuss the Western historical perception of depressive disorders and issues related to these perceptions. The fourth chapter presents a case study of a patient deemed representative of patients with depressive disorder. Succeeding chapters use the case study to describe individual therapeutic approaches for this patient. These therapeutic approaches included individual psychology of depression, an object relations view, self-psychology, supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy, behavioral therapy, rational emotive behavior therapy, cognitive therapies, schema-focused therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, couple and family therapy, and integrative conceptualization.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rational Emotive Therapy With Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis. Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Nelson, J. Ron; Gutkin, Terry B.; Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, Vol 12(4), Win 2004. pp. 222-235. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This article systematically reviews the available research on rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) with children and adolescents. Meta-analytic procedures were applied to 19 studies that met inclusion criteria. The overall mean weighted effect of REBT was positive and significant. Weighted z-sub(r) effect sizes were also computed for five outcome categories: anxiety, disruptive behaviors, irrationality, self-concept, and grade point average. In terms of magnitude, the largest positive mean effect of REBT was on disruptive behaviors. Analyses also revealed the following noteworthy findings: (a) there was no statistical difference between studies identified low or high in internal validity; (b) REBT appeared equally effective for children and adolescents presenting with and without identified problems; (c) non-mental health professionals produced REBT effects of greater magnitude than their mental health counterparts; (d) the longer the duration of REBT sessions, the greater the impact, and (e) children benefited more from REBT than adolescents. The findings are discussed in terms of several important limitations along with suggestions for future research.

 

 

 

 

 

Therapist Interpretations and Client Processes in Three Therapeutic Modalities: Implications for Psychotherapy Integration. Gazzola, Nicola; Stalikas, Anastassios; Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, Vol 14(4), Dec 2004. pp. 397-418. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This research investigated therapist interpretations and subsequent client actions in 3 therapeutic modalities--client-centered therapy, gestalt/existential therapies, and rational-emotive behavior therapy-by employing the coding system of the consensual qualitative research method (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & N. E. Williams, 1997). By allowing conceptual categories to emerge from these qualitatively analyzed data, the authors found that each approach had its own specific pattern of interpretation content as well as style of delivering the interpretations. Client reactions to interpretations were mostly positive. The results suggest that interpretation is a common therapeutic element and that different therapies nonetheless accentuate different aspects of interpretation. Implications for psychotherapy integration are offered, and the findings are discussed with reference to theory and clinical practice.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The cognitive and treatment aspects of perfectionism: Introduction to the special issues. Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(4), Win 2004. pp. 233-240. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The papers in this special issue touch on past themes identified in the contemporary literature, but the authors of these papers also raise some new issues. The basic premise that underscores these papers is that the irrational desire to be perfect involves a complex interplay of cognitive, emotional, interpersonal, and behavioral factors, and people debilitated by extreme perfectionism need an equally complex treatment approach. One of the papers involves a fine-grained analysis of the content of the personal standards subscale of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Another paper is a conceptual analysis that further underscores the link between the perfectionism construct and contingent self-worth. The third paper follows from recent attempts to link perfectionism with individual differences in attributional style. The fourth paper summarizes the results of a unique experiment that examines perfectionists' responses to failure versus success. The final paper is a unique investigation of perfectionism in cocaine abusing clients with co-morbid personality disorders.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shedding light on the relationship between personal standards and psychopathology: The case for contingent self-worth. Di Bartolo, Patricia Marten; Frost, Randy O.; Chang, Peicha; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(4), Win 2004. pp. 241-254. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Previous research has revealed some puzzling inconsistencies in the relationship of Personal Standards (PS) to measures of psychopathology. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that setting high Personal Standards will relate to psychopathology only when meeting these standards is a necessary condition for a sense of self-worth. We generated items that reflected a sense of conditional self-worth based on the meeting of Personal Standards and named this measure the Contingent Self-Worth Scale: (CSWS). Factor analysis of the CSWS and the PS subscale of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale yielded three types of Personal Standards: "Pure Personal Standards," "Success-Based Self-Worth," and "Activity-Based Self-Worth." Two of the original PS items did not load on the Pure Personal Standards scale. Correlational analyses revealed that Pure Personal Standards was related to measures of adaptive outcome whereas both measures of Contingent Self-Worth were related to more maladaptive functioning, although with some small differences. We call for further research to explore the relationship of PS to the construct of perfectionism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Perfectionism and acceptance. Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(4), Win 2004. pp. 255-269. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The present paper argues that there is both a positive and a negative form of perfectionism, and that they can be differentiated in terms of acceptance. The basic argument is that there is nothing unhealthy or dysfunctional about the striving for perfection as such--perfectionism, however, becomes dysfunctional when this striving for perfection turns into a demand for perfection, denned as an inability to accept being less than perfect. Positive perfectionism, in other words, is viewed as a dialectic combination of (a) a striving for perfection, and (b) the acceptance of non-perfection. Some therapeutic implications are discussed, and some directions for further research are pointed out.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dimensions of perfectionism and levels of attributions for grades: Relations with dysphoria and academic performance. Blankstein, Kirk R.; Winkworth, Gary R.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(4), Win 2004. pp. 271-299. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The current study examined associations between dimensions of perfectionism, levels of attributions for a self-identified problem with marks, and dysphoria and course final grade in university students (253 women; 125 men). Our study revealed several significant findings: (1) perfectionism and levels of attribution are distinct yet related constructs; (2) socially prescribed perfectionism and specific levels of attribution both accounted for unique variance in dysphoria; (3) there were significant gender differences with respect to the relations among perfectionism dimensions, levels of attribution, and dysphoria; (4) self-oriented perfectionism and specific levels of attribution both accounted for unique variance in final grade, but in men only; (5) interactions between perfectionism dimensions and levels of attribution did not augment the prediction of dysphoria or academic performance; (6) self-oriented perfectionism is possibly adaptive under some circumstances. Implications for treating perfectionists and for further research are discussed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Perfectionism, cognition, and affect in response to performance failure vs success. Besser, Avi; Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(4), Win 2004. pp. 301-328. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The current paper describes the results of an experiment in which 200 students who varied in levels of trait perfectionism performed a laboratory task of varying levels of difficulty. Participants received either negative or positive performance feedback, independent of their actual level of performance. Analyses of pre-task and post-task measures of negative and positive affect showed that individuals with high self-oriented perfectionism experienced a general increase in negative affect after performing the task, and self-oriented perfectionists who received negative performance feedback were especially likely to report decreases in positive affect. Additional analyses showed that self-oriented perfectionists who received negative feedback responded with a cognitive orientation characterized by performance dissatisfaction, cognitive rumination, and irrational task importance. In contrast, there were relatively few significant differences involving other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. Collectively, our findings support the view that self-oriented perfectionism is a vulnerability factor involving negative cognitive and affective reactions following failure experiences that reflect poorly on the self.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Narcissism, perfectionism and self-termination from treatment in outpatient cocaine users. McCown, William G.; Carlson, Glen; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(4), Win 2004. pp. 329-340. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This study examines perfectionism in individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV, Text Revised [American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Text revision (DSM-TV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association] diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder and a coexisting diagnosis of cocaine abuse or dependence. Participating clients were treated in outpatient settings that provided cognitive-behavioral therapy. Clients were administered Hewitt and Flett's (1991b) [Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456-470] Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale prior to treatment. Scores for dimensions of perfectionism were compared with those obtained from cocaine abusers in treatment with diagnoses of Antisocial Personality or Affective Disorder. Clients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder were characterized by relatively higher levels of other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. Survival analysis suggests that self-termination from treatment by cocaine-abusing clients with a diagnosis of Narcissistic Disorder is related to high levels of other-oriented perfectionism. The clinical implications and limits of this study are discussed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Idiosyncratic Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy. Paton, Irene; British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Vol 32(4), Nov 2004. pp. 579-580. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book "Idiosyncratic Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy," edited by W. Dryden (2002. For this publication each contributor was asked to outline 12 points of practice that taken together demonstrates their idiosyncratic practice of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). The reviewer's first impression of this book was of feeling energised and inspired by the richness and variety of ideas, most of which he could see being useful in his work. This book gives credibility and validity to practitioners' idiosyncracies and differences in applying the REBT model. As well as the emphasis on the uniqueness of the counsellor, there is also an acknowledgement of the importance of the client's needs. The index is particularly useful in this publication as it provided a means of finding and comparing the information from the various contributors.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy: A Behavioral Change Model for Executive Coaching? Sherin, Jessica; Caiger, Leigh; Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research, Vol 56(4), Fal 2004. Special issue: Trudging Toward Dodoville Part 1: Conceptual Approaches in Executive Coaching. pp. 225-233. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The authors suggest the use of A. Ellis's (1971, 1994) rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) as a tool to help clients effect behavioral change in the context of a coaching relationship. The article begins with a brief overview of REBT followed by an argument for its usefulness in an executive coaching context. The authors outline the therapeutic components of REBT that may facilitate executive coaching and discuss the circumstances under which REBT may not be appropriate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post-September 11th Perspectives on Religion, Spirituality, and Philosophy in the Personal and Professional Lives of Selected REBT Cognoscenti. Weinrach, Stephen G.; Dryden, Windy; DiMattia, Dominic J.; Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol 82(4), Fal 2004. pp. 426-438. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The purpose of this article was for selected Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) cognoscenti to examine the impact of the events of September 11th, 2001, on their beliefs about religion, spirituality, and their personal philosophy--including the role of evil in the universe and the implications of these issues on their use of REBT. The degree of consistency of the authors' views with classical REBT theory and philosophy was examined. The authors are current or former members of the Albert Ellis Institute's International Training Standards and Policy Review Committee, of which Albert Ellis, REBT's founder, is also a member.

 

 

 

 

 

Post-September 11th Perspectives on Religion, Spirituality, and Philosophy in the Personal and Professional Lives of Selected REBT Cognoscenti: A Response to My Colleagues. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol 82(4), Fal 2004. pp. 439-442. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This is a discussion and evaluation of the views of the authors of the article "Post-September 11th Perspectives on Religion, Spirituality, and Philosophy in the Personal and Professional Lives of Selected REBT Cognoscenti" (see record 2004-21338-006). Several of the authors are shown to endorse most of the main principles and practices of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) but also to hold some of its important views on unconditional self-acceptance and unconditional other-acceptance lightly and inconsistently.

 

 

 

 

 

Irrational and evaluative beliefs in individuals with anger disorders. Jones, Jason; Trower, Peter; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(3), Fal 2004. pp. 153-169. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Evaluative beliefs have long been regarded as "hot" cognitions fundamental to the arousal of emotion. Previous research on anger has predominantly focused on inferential beliefs, with explorations of evaluative beliefs largely ignored. Therefore, this paper presents an investigation of the nature of evaluative beliefs in individuals with anger disorders. To investigate the experimental hypotheses that individuals with anger disorders will report high levels of hostile related evaluative beliefs, two methodologies were applied to a clinical sample of individuals with anger disorders. Individuals with anger disorders reported hostile evaluative beliefs, but interestingly it was evident that such individuals endorsed high levels of negative self-evaluation. The implications of these findings for future research and clinical work are discussed.

 

 

 

 

 

Relationships between dysfunctional beliefs and positive and negative indices of well-being: A critical evaluation of the common beliefs survey-III. Ciarrochi, Joseph; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(3), Fal 2004. pp. 171-188. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The Common Beliefs Survey-III is a factored measure of dysfunctional beliefs and has generally shown satisfactory convergent validity and test-retest reliability [(2001) Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive- Behavior Therapy, 19(2), 89-103). We sought to further establish the utility of the measure by examining the extent the dysfunctional belief subscales related to a wide variety of positive and negative indices of well-being, after controlling for a potential confound, namely, social desirability. Four hundred and fifty-seven university students completed questionnaires that assessed six dimensions of dysfunctional belief, seven negative indices of well-being (depression, anxiety, stress, guilt, hostility, hopelessness, suicidal thinking), three positive indices of well-being (life satisfaction, joviality, state self-assurance), and social desirability. Analyses revealed that lower well-being was associated with (1) beliefs that self-worth is dependent on success, (2) beliefs that self-worth is dependent on approval, (3) demanding beliefs that reflect unrealistically high expectations for events and individuals. Belief variables predicted 14% of the variance in the negative indices but only 7.3% in the positive indices. Stepwise regression revealed that the optimal set of belief predictors depended on the type of well-being predicted. These findings have implications for both theory and practice.

 

 

 

 

 

Cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain: Strategies for the successful use of homework assignments. Johnson, Malcolm H.; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(3), Fal 2004. pp. 189-218. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Presents an overview of the research findings to date, and practical guidelines for the use of homework in psychosocial treatments for patients with chronic pain. Generally, psychosocial treatments incorporating homework assignments help patients to improve more than when treatment is comprised entirely of in-session work. The article outlines common obstacles experienced when using homework with pain patients and strategies to combat these obstacles. The types of homework assignments that may be most helpful, as well as interventions that can be used to promote homework compliance and successful treatment outcome are discussed.

 

 

 

 

 

Using a session feedback form in cognitive therapy with children. Friedberg, Robert D.; Miller, Robyn; Perymon, Amber; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(3), Fal 2004. pp. 219-230. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This article presents a new written form for eliciting session feedback from children. The importance of session feedback is discussed and the specific written form is presented. Clinical applications and advantages of the session feedback form are also reviewed. Additionally, the uses of the session feedback form in supervision are explained. Finally, cautions and limitations are outlined.

 

 

 

 

 

The theories underpinning rational emotive behaviour therapy: Where's the supportive evidence? MacInnes, Douglas; International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol 41(6), Aug 2004. pp. 685-695. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This paper examines the underlying theoretical philosophy of one of the most widely used cognitive behaviour therapies, rational emotive behaviour therapy. It examines whether two central theoretical principles are supported by research evidence: firstly, that irrational beliefs lead to dysfunctional emotions and inferences and that rational beliefs lead to functional emotions and inferences and, secondly, that demand beliefs are the primary core irrational belief. The established criteria for evaluating the efficacy of the theories are detailed and used to evaluate the strength of evidence supporting these two assumptions. The findings indicate there is limited evidence to support these theories.

 

 

 

 

 

Cognitive behavior therapy for older adults: Practical guidelines for adapting therapy structure. Secker, David L.; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Pachana, Nancy A.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(2), Sum 2004. pp. 93-109. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective approach for a wide range of problems affecting older adults. While a variety of empirical and clinical papers have examined modifications to the content and delivery of CBT to enhance its efficacy with older adults, changes to the structure of therapy with this population have not been as widely discussed. Issues around optimizing the structure of CBT with older adults are presented, along with suggestions for realizing these changes within a clinical context.

 

 

 

 

 

Anger and the ABC Model Underlying Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy. Ziegler, Daniel J.; Smith, Phillip N.; Psychological Reports, Vol 94(3,Pt1), Jun 2004. pp. 1009-1014. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The ABC model underlying Ellis's Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy predicts that people who think more irrationally should display greater trait anger than do people who think less irrationally. This study tested this prediction regarding the ABC model. 186 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Second Edition to measure irrational thinking and trait anger, respectively. Students who scored higher on Overall Irrational Thinking and Low Frustration Tolerance scored significantly higher on Trait Anger than did those who scored lower on Overall Irrational Thinking and Low Frustration Tolerance. This indicates support for the ABC model, especially Ellis's construct of irrational beliefs which is central to the model.

 

 

 

2003

 

Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy Integrated Approach (2nd ed.). Paton, Irene; British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Vol 32(2), May 2004. pp. 255-256. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book, "Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy Integrated Approach (2nd ed.)," by A. Ellis (see record 2003-04406-000). The author has described himself as the father of Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) and the grandfather of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Whilst the formulations of REBTand CBTare stressed, he considers this book to be more wideranging than the first edition in that he shows how these formulations 'can be added to and integrated with other therapeutic practices'. There appears to be a two-way relationship between how REBT has integrated other leading schools of therapy into the REBT model and how REBT can be integrated with other modes of therapy. The inclusion of ways other practitioners have used and adapted the model enriches this publication. The reviewer appreciates the section on the use of humour and his humorous songs. He recommends this book to all practitioners who want to extend their toolkit for use with resistant clients as it offers new approaches both to our clients' resistance and to ways in which the practitioner might also contribute to this phenomena.

 

 


 

 

 

An Investigation of Irrational Beliefs and Death Anxiety as a Function of HIV Status. Braunstein, Jeffrey W.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(1), Spr 2004. pp. 21-38. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The present study investigated the relationship of irrational beliefs and death anxiety as a function of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status in homosexual and bisexual men. Recruited for this study were 101 HIV-seropositive participants (34 asymptomatic, 30 symptomatic, and 37 symptomatic and diagnosed with AIDS) and a contrast group (40 HlV-seronegative). In the primary analysis, HIV-negative participants in this study could not be differentiated from asymptomatic, symptomatic, and AIDS diagnosed HIV-infected participants on measures of death anxiety and irrational beliefs regardless of the status or severity of illness. In addition, irrational beliefs strongly predicted death anxiety for all participants. Results from post hoc analyses suggested that HIV status produced an interaction effect with level of total irrational beliefs and together predicted death anxiety. Even in these analyses, total irrational beliefs explained more of the variance of death anxiety than HIV status. These results are discussed within the context of the need for expanding cognitive-behavioral treatment options for HIV-infected individuals.

 

 


 

 

 

Effect of the destructive disagreement belief on relationship satisfaction with a romantic partner or closest friend. Cramer, Duncan; Psychology & Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, Vol 77(1), Mar 2004. pp. 121-133. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This study tested the rational-emotive-behaviour theory hypothesis that, when imagining having a serious disagreement with one's romantic partner or closest friend, imagining believing the rational belief that disagreement is not destructive will lead to less dissatisfaction with either relationship than imagining endorsing the irrational belief that disagreement is destructive. The influence of demand characteristics on such an effect was assessed with two counter-demand control conditions. Undergraduates (106 women and 44 men) were assigned randomly to one of five conditions in a pretest/posttest design. The belief appeared to be effectively manipulated. Post-test relationship satisfaction was significantly higher in the rational condition than in the control or irrational condition. These results were not affected by the counter-demand instructions and suggest that this rational belief may reduce relationship dissatisfaction during disagreements.

 

 

 

Why rational emotive behavior therapy is the most comprehensive and effective form of behavior therapy. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(2), Sum 2004. pp. 85-92. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: I (Albert Ellis) started to create Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1953, after I stopped using psychoanalysis and was doing two monographs summarizing the 200 or so existing psychotherapies. I stopped calling myself a psychoanalyst because I found that, instead of being more intensive than other therapies, it intensively investigated innumerable irrelevancies and failed to uncover the real reasons why people were disturbed and what they could effectively do to make themselves less dysfunctional. It was especially deficient in behavioral homework assignments that I found essential for helping clients feel better, get better, and stay better. It also lacked emotional-experiential exercises, which I started using when my clients were stuck with whining about the "horrors" of their early childhood and were resisting my efforts to help them by my using role playing and other dramatic-evocative methods.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Irrational beliefs and basic assumptions in bereaved university students: A comparison study. Boelen, Paul A.; Kip, Hanneke J.; Voorsluijs, Jeanine J.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(2), Sum 2004. pp. 111-129. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Several authors have argued that the loss of a loved one triggers changes in people's beliefs and assumptions, and that these changes play a role in emotional problems after bereavement. The present study was an attempt to investigate these hypotheses. 30 students who had been confronted with the death of a parent or sibling, on average nearly 3 years ago, were compared with 30 nonbereaved matched control subjects on different measures assessing basic assumptions and irrational beliefs as denned in REBT. In line with the notion that bereavement has an impact on people's basic assumptions, results showed that bereaved students had a less positive view of the meaningfulness of the world and the worthiness of the self than their nonbereaved counterparts. Also, in accord with the notion that the tendency to think irrationally is likely to increase after a stressful life event, the bereaved were found to have higher levels of irrational thinking. Furthermore, it was found that the degree to which bereaved individuals endorsed general as well as bereavement-specific irrational beliefs was significantly associated with the intensity of symptoms of traumatic grief. Conversely, none of the basic assumptions was associated with traumatic grief.

 

 

 

 


 

 

Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy Integrated Approach (2nd ed.). Paton, Irene; British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Vol 32(2), May 2004. pp. 255-256. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book, "Overcoming Resistance: A Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy Integrated Approach (2nd ed.)," by A. Ellis (see record 2003-04406-000). The author has described himself as the father of Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) and the grandfather of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Whilst the formulations of REBTand CBTare stressed, he considers this book to be more wideranging than the first edition in that he shows how these formulations 'can be added to and integrated with other therapeutic practices'. There appears to be a two-way relationship between how REBT has integrated other leading schools of therapy into the REBT model and how REBT can be integrated with other modes of therapy. The inclusion of ways other practitioners have used and adapted the model enriches this publication. The reviewer appreciates the section on the use of humour and his humorous songs. He recommends this book to all practitioners who want to extend their toolkit for use with resistant clients as it offers new approaches both to our clients' resistance and to ways in which the practitioner might also contribute to this phenomena.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

A Mormon rational emotive behavior therapist attempts Qur'anic rational emotive behavior therapy. Nielsen, Stevan Lars; In: Casebook for a spiritual strategy in counseling and psychotherapy. Richards, P. Scott; Dept of Counseling Psychology & Special Education; Brigham Young U; Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 2004. pp. 213-230. [Chapter] Abstract: This chapter describes using the Qur'an with rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) to treat a 24-year-old Muslim woman. The client described symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder, including fear during a rape, later flashbacks, nightmares, and sudden physiological arousal, as well as symptoms consistent with a major depressive episode. Following 38 treatment sessions using Qur'anic rational emotive behavior therapy, the client reported that she was doing well and was close to finishing her doctorate in biochemistry at Brigham Young University. The relevance of the psychotherapist's theistic stance to the client's outcome is discussed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Facilitating Client Change in Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy. Gullickson, Terri; PsycCRITIQUES, 2004. pp. [np]. [Review] Abstract: Originally published in Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 1995, Vol 40(11), 1114. This is a review of the book, "Facilitating Client Change in Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy" (see record 1995-97413-000) by Windy Dryden. This second volume in Whurr's Practical Skills in Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy series focuses on several clinical skills necessary for conducting therapy within the rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) model. Dryden, a frequent writer about REBT, presents 12 chapters about the following topics: introducing clients to the REBT view of therapeutic change; goal setting; eliciting a commitment to change from clients; negotiating and reviewing homework assignments; and disputing skills. Dryden augments his discussion with case studies and relevant sections of dialogue between client and therapist. This book is recommended for interested clinicians and REBT therapists in training.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Not a "Must" Read, Rationally Speaking. Godfrey, Rayna Vaught; PsycCRITIQUES, Vol 49(Suppl 3), 2004. pp. [np]. [Review] Abstract: Reviews the book "Counselling Individuals: A Rational Emotive Behavioural Handbook (4th ed.) by Windy Dryden and Michael Neenan. Rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) falls under the rubric of cognitive therapy, as it relies on an examination of one's thinking as a means to therapeutic change. It is different from other forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy, however, in its focus on discovering a client's irrational beliefs (or unconditional musts) and teaching the client to replace these beliefs with rational preferences. "Rational Emotive Behavioural Handbook (4th ed.)" provides an in-depth discussion of the details of this therapy, beginning with the theory behind it and continuing with the application of its techniques. The authors do a thorough job describing the theoretical context, delineating the techniques, and using case examples to illustrate the practical application of these techniques. Their commentary on indications and contraindications for particular clients is helpful. It interesting that, in light of the current focus on empirically validated treatments, there is very little use of controlled, empirical data in this book.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Early theories and practices of rational emotive behavior therapy and how they have been augmented and revised during the last three decades. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(3-4), Win 2003. pp. 219-243. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The author offers revisions in the theory and practice of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) since 1962. However, he notes that many of REBT's basic tenets remain central to the revised theory.

 

 

 

 

 

Reasons why rational emotive behavior therapy is relatively neglected in the professional and scientific literature. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(3-4), Win 2003. pp. 245-252. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Although rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) has been the pioneering cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) of the twentieth century, and although its main methods are very popular among practicing clinicians as well as members of the public, it has been relatively neglected in the professional and scientific literature. Reasons for this neglect are discussed and some steps are suggested to make REBT more effective and more scientifically accepted.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Albert Ellis and the Buddha: rational Soul Mates? A comparison of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) and Zen Buddhism. Christopher, Michael S.; Mental Health, Religion & Culture, Vol 6(3), Nov 2003. pp. 283-293. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Although religion and psychology are generally conceived of as distinct domains, the theoretical underpinnings of certain psychological theories are inextricably related to religious ideology. This relationship is perhaps best exemplified by the theoretical and applied similarity between Buddhist principles and Albert Ellis's Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT). Sharing a common purpose, both the Buddha and Ellis set out to improve the human condition, and to do so in a rational, empirical manner. The significance of these parallels is discussed in relation to the incorporation of early Buddhist and Zen Buddhism concepts into the current practice of REBT.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

The handbook of rational emotive behavior therapy. Huber, Charles H.; PsycCRITIQUES, Vol 48(5), Oct 2003. pp. [np]. [Review] Abstract: Originally published in Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 2003, Vol 48(5), 645-647. Reviews the book, Overcoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and Behaviors: New Directions for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (see record 2001-18466-000). A somewhat unique, although possibly unintended, aspect of the chapters in this book is the introduction to the basic rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) concepts each contains. Each chapter, as stated earlier in this review, is an article previously published in a psychological journal, a chapter from an edited book, or a symposium paper presentation by the author. Thus, each is originally written as a stand-alone reading. Although this repeat of basic REBT concepts in every chapter tested my low frustration tolerance as a mature REBT professional, for the novice or those less familiar with REBT, they offer multiple trial learning experiences that would surely contribute to concept mastery by the time the final chapter is read. This too makes for a fine handbook reference, as one might refer to specific chapters without having to reread earlier ones and still have sufficient information from which to move forward.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Science and Philosophy: Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Padesky, Christine A.; Beck, Aaron T.; Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 17(3), Fal 2003. pp. 211-224. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Aaron T. Beck's Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Albert Ellis' Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) are compared. A major difference between these therapies is that CT is an empirically based therapy and REBT is philosophically based. The origins and subsequent development of the therapies are reviewed with this difference highlighted. Comparisons between CT and REBT practice are made regarding attitudes toward client beliefs, use of guided discovery, types of cognition addressed, and the nature of the client-therapist relationship. The scientific foundations of CT are summarized in terms of the specificity of its conceptual models, the construction of targeted treatment protocols, and empirical findings that support both CT conceptualizations and treatments.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Similarities and Differences Between Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Therapy. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 17(3), Fal 2003. pp. 225-240. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The main theoretical and practical applications of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Cognitive Therapy (CT) are examined and found to be similar to each other in most respects, but REBT bases its concepts of improved treatment of neurotic disorders and of severe personality dysfunctioning largely on philosophical, existential, and humanistic bases, while CT tends to align them with empirical results of outcome studies. Both REBT and CT, however, use philosophic and empirical outcome studies to construct and validate their theories.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Case Studies in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy With Children and Adolescents. Crosby, Brian; Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 17(3), Fal 2003. pp. 289-291. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: In this book, the authors present 10 illustrations demonstrating Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) with children and adolescents. The reviewer comments that this book would make a good supplement for students and beginning therapists in learning REBT. It may also provide new and creative techniques for experienced therapists practicing with younger populations. The book begins with an overview of REBT that includes the rationale, the two name changes in the approach (1961 and 1993), the philosophical basis, the 12 major irrational beliefs that contribute to mental illness and their alternatives, and a short overview of techniques. The book also discusses the goals of therapy and current research that supports using REBT with children and adolescents. The reviewer notes several features that make the book a valuable reference.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy: An Interview with Albert Ellis. Overholser, James C.; Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, Vol 33(3), Fal 2003. pp. 187-204. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Over the past 50 years, Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) has been developed and refined by Albert Ellis. REBT provides a framework for therapy that appears useful for many therapists and most clients. This paper includes a recent interview with Dr. Ellis, examining issues related to the development, application, and ongoing refinement of REBT as a useful and effective approach to psychotherapy.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Counsellor interpretations and the occurrence of in-session client change moments in non-dynamic psychotherapies. Gazzola, Nicola; Iwakabe, Shigeru; Stalikas, Anastassios; Counselling Psychology Quarterly, Vol 16(2), Jun 2003. pp. 81-94. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This study explored the relationship between therapist interpretations and optimal in-session client processes in 20 sessions conducted by exemplary psychotherapists of three different theoretical orientations: Client-Centred Therapy (CCT), Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), and Gestalt/Existential Therapy (GT). The results indicated that interpretations were used with similar frequency across therapeutic approaches, but they were neither superior nor inferior to other interventions in relation to the occurrence of optimal in-session client processes. The results support the notion that interpretation is a commonly used therapist intervention and that different therapies accentuate different aspects of interpretation. Implications for psychotherapy integration are offered and the findings are discussed with reference to theory and clinical therapy practice.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Empirically Documenting Clinically Significant Change in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Beal, Don; Duckro, Paul; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(2), Sum 2003. pp. 75-88. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The purpose of the present article is to outline the conceptual foundation and practical methodology of the Jacobson-Truax Clinically Significant Change index, derived from psychotherapy outcome research. This way of considering what constitutes clinically significant change in psychotherapy puts a premium on social validation. It empowers clinicians to evaluate the meaningfulness of their client's progress and to communicate that progress to third parties such as other clinicians, researchers, and insurers. Application of the method is demonstrated in the case of a client treated with Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). The discussion focuses on the advantages of this procedure for satisfying the intellectual interest of the practitioner-scientist and for furthering informed discussion of the value in various applications of REBT to clinical problems.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Skilling the Client: An important concept for counselling psychologists. Nelson-Jones, Richard; Counselling Psychology Review, Vol 18(2), May 2003. pp. 3-11. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The main purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients to acquire some better skills for becoming more effective human beings once therapy ends. Human being skills are sequences of choices that people make in specific skills areas: namely, mind skills and communication/action skills areas. Mind skills include creating awareness, rules, perceptions, self-talk, visual images, explanations and expectations. Theoretical advantages of using a skills model include broadening specific approaches, for instance REBT and Cognitive Therapy, and focusing on supra-normal as well as normal and inferior functioning. Practical advantages include overcoming the divergence between training counselling psychologists in therapeutic skills, but then neither or inconsistently applying the concept of skills to clients. A three-stage skilled client model of the therapy process is presented, with each stage containing three phases. More research is required into identifying what are desirable human being skills and how best to introduce and use the concept of skills during therapy.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

The relationship of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) to social psychology. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(1), Spr 2003. pp. 5-20. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) includes several main theories and practices, especially the hypotheses that people are both constructivists and destructivists. It holds that they have powerful innate and socially acquired tendencies to often be self-helping and "rational" but also self-defeating and "irrational." REBT largely derives its method of therapy from many clients seen by the author, from hundreds of therapy studies, and from the social psychology literature. This article shows how REBT formulations overlap with some of the findings of social psychology, how these findings can appreciably be used to improve REBT practice, how some of the unique theories and methods of REBT may contribute to the field of social psychology, and how social psychologists can help to research some of the main REBT principles.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

The concept of psychological health in rational emotive behavior therapy. Ziegler, Daniel J.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(1), Spr 2003. pp. 21-36. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The argument has been made that if Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is to survive and prosper in the 21st century, its underlying personality theory requires further development and clarification. In this spirit, the concept of psychological health in REBT theory is examined in the present article. The concept of psychological health in personality theories is discussed briefly, as are the core aspects of the REBT view of emotional disturbance. Given that necessary context, a definition of the essence of psychological health in REBT theory is proposed and discussed. The clinical implications of the proposed definition are then explored.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Ellis and Epictetus: Dialogue vs. method in psychotherapy. Still, Arthur; Dryden, Windy; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(1), Spr 2003. pp. 37-55. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Some recent commentators have found problems in the scientific status of Ellis's REBT, which seem not to be present in Beck's CBT. We argue that this may be partly because they drew differently from the traditions of thought available to them, which appears most clearly in their first published articles. Beck's articles were more in the modern medical tradition, whose history forms part of the search for method leading to abstract knowledge and control that has been so powerful a feature of Western culture. Ellis was more discursive in style and drew more explicitly on the dialogic tradition, in which obstacles to self-awareness and freedom are removed by enlisting the power of reason through question and answer. Socrates and Epictetus are the classical representatives of this tradition, and Ellis's first article shows clear signs of being modelled on Epictetus. Later, however, though continuing in this tradition in his personal style and popular self-help books, Ellis also developed abstract models and methods that belong to the medical tradition. His dual allegiance has made him vulnerable to criticism from both sides.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Alexithymia, irrational beliefs, and the rational-emotive explanation of emotional disturbance. Culhane, Scott E.; Watson, P. J.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(1), Spr 2003. pp. 57-72. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: In recent discussions of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Ellis has argued that unconscious processes supplement irrational beliefs in explaining psychopathology. The hypothesis of this investigation was that these unconscious processes reflect alexithymia. University students responded to the three factors from the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Malouff and Schutte Belief Scale (MSBS), 5 subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs, and instruments recording depression, anxiety, and neuroticism. As hypothesized, alexithymia and irrational beliefs predicted greater emotional disturbance while also displaying some small positive correlations with each other. In multiple regressions, both types of variables combined to predict emotional disturbance, with alexithymia explaining the greater amount of variance. Alexithymic difficulties in identifying emotions had uniquely negative mental health implications. The MSBS and the Low Frustration Tolerance subscale were the most noteworthy measures of a pathogenic irrationality. These data supported the claim that the unconscious processes of REBT could be conceptualized in terms of alexithymia.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Overcoming resistance: A rational emotive behavior therapy integrated approach (2nd Ed). Lazarus, Arnold A.; Child & Family Behavior Therapy, Vol 25(3), 2003. pp. 78-80. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews Ellis' book (see record 2003-04406-000) concerning a rational emotive behavior therapy integrated approach. The reviewer states that Ellis has written scores of mental-health books, all preaching a similar message and none highly technical. This book is described as being a little more meaty than most of the others but requiring relatively little technical background to appreciate. Brief summaries of various chapters are presented. The reviewer suggests that one of the more interesting and informative books on resistance is Wachtel's 1982 edited volume, which is seen as having made several points not mentioned by Ellis that would have enriched his work. Specifically, the reviewer found, in a book that purports to be behavioral and integrated, Ellis' omission of the cognitive-behavioral issues presented in Wachtel's book to be regrettable. Further, in contrast to virtually all contemporary behavioral texts, there was no mention of validation, outcome evaluation, and the like. Despite all the limitations noted, however, this text is recommended as a worthy addition to the REBT armamentarium. Clinical psychology students and behavioral clinicians alike will benefit from reading this book, which is well-written and calculated to maintain the reader's interest.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Rational emotive behaviour therapy. Theoretical developments. Westöö, Johan; Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Vol 32(4), 2003. pp. 219-220. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book edited by W. Dryden which covers present development and possible future directions of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). The subject is covered from within REBT as well as in terms of how it has influenced and been influenced by other fields in psychology. A number of authors, including the founder of REBT, Albert Ellis, contribute to the 11 chapters. These chapters cover: an introduction to the ABC model of REBT; different approaches within the theory and practise of REBT; suggestions for developments and empirical validation of concepts within REBT; the philosophy and values guiding REBT; REBT and cognitive psychology; REBT and social psychology; general semantics and REBT; evolutionary psychology and REBT; and, finally, theoretical developments in REBT as applied to schizophrenia.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Therapist interpretations and client change: An investigation of process in non-dynamic psychotherapies. Gazzola, Nicola; Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol 64(1-A), 2003. pp. 73. [Dissertation Abstract] Abstract: This research investigated the relationship between therapist interpretations and optimal in-session client processes by employing two distinct but complementary studies. In the first study, the data were collected from 20 psychotherapy sessions conducted by exemplary psychotherapists of three different theoretical orientations: Client-Centered Therapy (CCT), Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), and Gestalt/Existential Therapy (GT). The results of the quantitative analysis indicated that interpretations were used with equal frequency across therapeutic approaches. Therapist interpretations were neither superior nor inferior to other interventions in relation to the occurrence of optimal in-session client processes. In the second study, the data were collected from 12 sessions equally divided between CCT, REBT, and GT. A qualitative method was employed to discover potential differences between interpretations in the three distinct therapeutic approaches as well as the differences between client processes subsequent to those interpretations. By allowing conceptual categories to emerge from this qualitatively analyzed data, it was found that interpretation was not a uniform construct across the three schools. Both common and unique features of the use of interpretations in CCT, REBT, and GT were found. The three approaches each had their own specific pattern of interpretation content as well as style of delivering the interpretations. Interpretations that were followed by optimal in-session processes were qualitatively different from those that were not. The results of these two studies support the notion that interpretation is a common therapeutic element but that different therapies nonetheless accentuate different aspects of interpretation. Implications for psychotherapy integration are offered and the findings are discussed with reference to theory and clinical practice. Future research directions for examining therapist interpretations are proposed.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

A comparison of community members' preferences to viewing two different approaches to therapy. Cain, Sherry Lynn; Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Vol 64(6-B), 2003. pp. 2908. [Dissertation Abstract] Abstract: The perceptions of community members on a traditional Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) counseling approach and a multi-sensory REBT counseling approach were examined in this study. A total of 98 individuals, who were the staff and parents recruited from a community Headstart program, participated in the study. Simulated counseling sessions of the two approaches were presented to the community members through eleven minute videotapes. After watching the counseling sessions, individuals rated the sessions with the Counseling Style Preference Form and the Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire. They also were asked to write comments about each of the counseling sessions. Paired sample T-tests yielded no statistically significant results indicating preference for either approach. Analyses of variance were conducted for the traditional REBT counseling approach and the multi-sensory REBT counseling approach with those participants who indicated that they had prior counseling and those who had not. The ANOVA's yielded significant results indicating that those participants who have been in counseling before rated the multi-sensory REBT approach to counseling higher and the traditional REBT approach to counseling lower than those participants who had not been in counseling before.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Group cognitive-behavioral therapy in a psychiatric population with diabetes. Mortiere, Catherine Mary; Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Vol 63(12-B), 2003. pp. 6100. [Dissertation Abstract] Abstract: This study examined the therapeutic effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on an inpatient psychiatric population with diabetes mellitus. A CBT group based on rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), logical persuasion, relaxation and guided imagery was added to a series of preexisting groups that included exercise and CBG/psychoeducation for diabetics in hopes of developing an effective model for this population. The researcher's goal was improve the overall health of diabetic psychiatric patients via increasing their knowledge and self-capability with respect to controlling their blood sugar levels, increasing self-esteem and decreasing depression. An experimental clinical trial, using a crossover design, was applied to evaluate the efficacy of CBT as an adjunct to standard treatment. The proposed found that a model which combines group CBT with standard treatment on diabetes had a significant affect on some of the variables studied, which would reject some of the null hypotheses. There was a within affect, which showed a decrease in depression, an increase in diabetic knowledge and a lowering of blood-glucose levels on some of the adherence measures. The group CBT had no effect on self-esteem. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of developing a longer-term appropriate combination therapy for psychiatric inpatients with concomitant diabetes.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Overcoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and Behaviors: New Directions for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy . No authorship indicated; Family Therapy, Vol 30(3), 2003. pp. 194. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is the original form of Cognitive Behavior Therapy. According to this review, its founder, Albert Ellis, now offers an up-to-date description of the main principles and practices of REBT, including the importance of cognition in psychological disturbances. The review discusses the author's goal (see record 2001-18466-000) of helping patients recognize their irrational and destructive beliefs, feelings, and behaviors, and to restructure harmful philosophic and behavioral styles to achieve maximal levels of happiness and productivity. The reviewer also note that other topics considered include: depression, stress management, addiction, marital problems, hypnosis, disposable myths, and other mental health obstacles.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Irrationality and manifestations of fear and anxiety in a sample of Slovak adolescents. Kordacová, Jana; Studia Psychologica, Vol 45(4), 2003. pp. 345-356. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The present study had for aim to assess how far the measure of irrational beliefs corresponds with selected types of fear and anxiety in a sample of secondary school students (N = 115). Two original Slovak scales were used: The Scale of Classical Fears and Stage Fright, Social situational fears (KSAT) and the Scale of Irrational Beliefs (IPA). The highest number of significant relations between irrationality and anxiety was noted with the factor of irrational idealization and anxiety. Idealization positively corresponded with the total KSAT scores as also with all the forms of fear. Perfectionism was related to the overall level of anxiety, and specifically to stage fright with which also corresponded irrationally-tinged negative expectations and the overall measure of irrationality. The latter was also related to experiencing of fear in social situations. The results vary in dependence on subjects' gender and are discussed also within the conceptual framework of the rational-emotive behavioral theory (REBT).

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Managing low self-esteem. Dryden, Windy; London, England: Whurr Publishers, Ltd., 2003. xiii, 242 pp. [Authored Book] Abstract: This book is based on the principles of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), an approach to counseling and psychotherapy that has a lot to offer clients with low self-esteem problems. First, it has a philosophical position on the self which stresses a person's uniqueness, humanity, complexity, and fallibility. REBT advocates self-acceptance rather than self-esteem. Secondly, it argues that this position can be taught and learned in a short period of time. Thirdly, it holds that clients can learn and practice a wide range of methods to facilitate the acquisition of a self-acceptance philosophy and its integration into the belief system of a person. The first part of the book presents theoretical and organizational bases for the work. The second part of the book is devoted to a session-by-sesssion review of the self-acceptance group curriculum.

 

 


 

 

 

 

Why I (really) became a therapist. Ellis, Albert; Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(2), Sum 2004. pp. 73-77. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: I (Albert Ellis) really became a psychotherapist mainly because I was very anxious in several respects and wanted to solve my own problems. This led me, first, to use the constructivism of many philosophies combined and integrated with the behavior therapy of John B. Watson. To these techniques I later added the emotional-evocative and experiential methods of several Zen Buddhist philosophers and of several psychotherapists, such as Fritz Perls and Will Schutz. But before I used them with other people, I actively- directively, philosophically, and emotionally tried them out on myself. They worked!-and have continued to work with many of my clients, workshop attendees, and readers. In many respects, then, I have experimented with my favorite and most fascinating subject-me. As the years go by, I continue these personal experiments, and the guidelines I discover from them, to help others. But primarily, I help myself and try to benefit others. Both/and, not either/or!

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

How my theory and practice of psychotherapy has influenced and changed other psychotherapies. Ellis, Albert; Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(2), Sum 2004. pp. 79-83. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: In this article I address three main questions: (a) how psychotherapy has changed the modern world of psychology, (b) how it has changed the modern world in general, and (c) how my special form of psychotherapy, rational emotive behavior therapy, and its derivative, cognitive behavior therapy, have changed the recent theory and practice of psychotherapy.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Why rational emotive behavior therapy is the most comprehensive and effective form of behavior therapy. Ellis, Albert; Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(2), Sum 2004. pp. 85-92. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: I (Albert Ellis) started to create Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1953, after I stopped using psychoanalysis and was doing two monographs summarizing the 200 or so existing psychotherapies. I stopped calling myself a psychoanalyst because I found that, instead of being more intensive than other therapies, it intensively investigated innumerable irrelevancies and failed to uncover the real reasons why people were disturbed and what they could effectively do to make themselves less dysfunctional. It was especially deficient in behavioral homework assignments that I found essential for helping clients feel better, get better, and stay better. It also lacked emotional-experiential exercises, which I started using when my clients were stuck with whining about the "horrors" of their early childhood and were resisting my efforts to help them by my using role playing and other dramatic-evocative methods.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Irrational beliefs and basic assumptions in bereaved university students: A comparison study. Boelen, Paul A.; Kip, Hanneke J.; Voorsluijs, Jeanine J.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 22(2), Sum 2004. pp. 111-129. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Several authors have argued that the loss of a loved one triggers changes in people's beliefs and assumptions, and that these changes play a role in emotional problems after bereavement. The present study was an attempt to investigate these hypotheses. 30 students who had been confronted with the death of a parent or sibling, on average nearly 3 years ago, were compared with 30 nonbereaved matched control subjects on different measures assessing basic assumptions and irrational beliefs as denned in REBT. In line with the notion that bereavement has an impact on people's basic assumptions, results showed that bereaved students had a less positive view of the meaningfulness of the world and the worthiness of the self than their nonbereaved counterparts. Also, in accord with the notion that the tendency to think irrationally is likely to increase after a stressful life event, the bereaved were found to have higher levels of irrational thinking. Furthermore, it was found that the degree to which bereaved individuals endorsed general as well as bereavement-specific irrational beliefs was significantly associated with the intensity of symptoms of traumatic grief. Conversely, none of the basic assumptions was associated with traumatic grief.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

A weekend of rational encounter. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(3-4), Win 2003. pp. 155-168. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This reprinted article originally appeared in Encounter (1969). The author describes a procedure called A Weekend of Rational Encounter. This technique aims to accomplish two main goals: first, to provide maximum encountering experiences for all the group members; and second, to include a good measure of cognitive and action-oriented group psychotherapy that is designed not only to help the participants feel better but also to get better.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Helping people get better rather than merely feel better. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(3-4), Win 2003. pp. 169-182. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The ideal goal is probably for the human individual to be minimally blocked and disturbed--meaning, relatively free from crippling anxiety, depression and hostility--and that he also be maximally self-actualizing, creative, and enjoying. The skilled and efficient therapist, therefore, should preferably be able to help him achieve this pluralistic kind of goal, rather than merely to encourage him to obtain emotional equanimity or the development of his human potential. The therapist who merely or mainly helps the individual to feel better only partially aids him to get better; and, by the same token, the therapist who only helps his client to get better may neglect to help him become a more humanly developed and enjoying person. Although the achievement of either one of these goals probably significantly helps the person to also achieve the other, no automatic cause and effect relationship exists between the two. The most effective form of psychotherapy, therefore, tends to be (a) experiential-emotive and cognitive behavioral; (b) oriented toward pleasure and discipline; (c) directive and open-ended; (d) concerned with the here-and-now and the future; and (e) comprehensive and multifaceted rather than one-sided and monolithic.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

A personal account of using RET to help control diabetes. Rubin, Richard; Walen, Susan R.; Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(3-4), Win 2003. pp. 215-218. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Albert Ellis describes his personal experiences with diabetes and how he handled them by using rational-emotive therapy (RET).

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Early theories and practices of rational emotive behavior therapy and how they have been augmented and revised during the last three decades. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(3-4), Win 2003. pp. 219-243. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The author offers revisions in the theory and practice of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) since 1962. However, he notes that many of REBT's basic tenets remain central to the revised theory.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Reasons why rational emotive behavior therapy is relatively neglected in the professional and scientific literature. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(3-4), Win 2003. pp. 245-252. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Although rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) has been the pioneering cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) of the twentieth century, and although its main methods are very popular among practicing clinicians as well as members of the public, it has been relatively neglected in the professional and scientific literature. Reasons for this neglect are discussed and some steps are suggested to make REBT more effective and more scientifically accepted.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

A multimodal assessment and rational emotive behavioural approach to stress counselling: A case study. Jenkins, Dinah; Palmer, Stephen; Counselling Psychology Quarterly, Vol 16(3), Sep 2003. pp. 265-287. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This paper demonstrates how the multimodal approach, developed by Arnold Lazarus (1989), can be used to aid assessment of a client suffering from the effects of chronic, work-related stress. The client was a 47-yr-old, female staff nurse at a large, acute general hospital. A rationale is provided for integrating the multimodal approach with rational emotive behaviour therapy theory, techniques and strategies (Kwee & Ellis, 1997). A modality profile and a second order BASIC I.D. profile were developed and used as the link between assessment and the stress counselling programme (Palmer, 1992). A range of assessment tools were used to assess progress and a session by session report is provided.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Science and Philosophy: Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Padesky, Christine A.; Beck, Aaron T.; Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 17(3), Fal 2003. pp. 211-224. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Aaron T. Beck's Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Albert Ellis' Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) are compared. A major difference between these therapies is that CT is an empirically based therapy and REBT is philosophically based. The origins and subsequent development of the therapies are reviewed with this difference highlighted. Comparisons between CT and REBT practice are made regarding attitudes toward client beliefs, use of guided discovery, types of cognition addressed, and the nature of the client-therapist relationship. The scientific foundations of CT are summarized in terms of the specificity of its conceptual models, the construction of targeted treatment protocols, and empirical findings that support both CT conceptualizations and treatments.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Similarities and Differences Between Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Therapy. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 17(3), Fal 2003. pp. 225-240. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The main theoretical and practical applications of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Cognitive Therapy (CT) are examined and found to be similar to each other in most respects, but REBT bases its concepts of improved treatment of neurotic disorders and of severe personality dysfunctioning largely on philosophical, existential, and humanistic bases, while CT tends to align them with empirical results of outcome studies. Both REBT and CT, however, use philosophic and empirical outcome studies to construct and validate their theories.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Case Studies in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy With Children and Adolescents. Crosby, Brian; Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol 17(3), Fal 2003. pp. 289-291. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: In this book, the authors present 10 illustrations demonstrating Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) with children and adolescents. The reviewer comments that this book would make a good supplement for students and beginning therapists in learning REBT. It may also provide new and creative techniques for experienced therapists practicing with younger populations. The book begins with an overview of REBT that includes the rationale, the two name changes in the approach (1961 and 1993), the philosophical basis, the 12 major irrational beliefs that contribute to mental illness and their alternatives, and a short overview of techniques. The book also discusses the goals of therapy and current research that supports using REBT with children and adolescents. The reviewer notes several features that make the book a valuable reference.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy: An Interview with Albert Ellis. Overholser, James C.; Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, Vol 33(3), Fal 2003. pp. 187-204. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Over the past 50 years, Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) has been developed and refined by Albert Ellis. REBT provides a framework for therapy that appears useful for many therapists and most clients. This paper includes a recent interview with Dr. Ellis, examining issues related to the development, application, and ongoing refinement of REBT as a useful and effective approach to psychotherapy.

 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 

Empirically Documenting Clinically Significant Change in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Beal, Don; Duckro, Paul; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(2), Sum 2003. pp. 75-88. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The purpose of the present article is to outline the conceptual foundation and practical methodology of the Jacobson-Truax Clinically Significant Change index, derived from psychotherapy outcome research. This way of considering what constitutes clinically significant change in psychotherapy puts a premium on social validation. It empowers clinicians to evaluate the meaningfulness of their client's progress and to communicate that progress to third parties such as other clinicians, researchers, and insurers. Application of the method is demonstrated in the case of a client treated with Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). The discussion focuses on the advantages of this procedure for satisfying the intellectual interest of the practitioner-scientist and for furthering informed discussion of the value in various applications of REBT to clinical problems.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

The relationship of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) to social psychology. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(1), Spr 2003. pp. 5-20. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) includes several main theories and practices, especially the hypotheses that people are both constructivists and destructivists. It holds that they have powerful innate and socially acquired tendencies to often be self-helping and "rational" but also self-defeating and "irrational." REBT largely derives its method of therapy from many clients seen by the author, from hundreds of therapy studies, and from the social psychology literature. This article shows how REBT formulations overlap with some of the findings of social psychology, how these findings can appreciably be used to improve REBT practice, how some of the unique theories and methods of REBT may contribute to the field of social psychology, and how social psychologists can help to research some of the main REBT principles.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

The concept of psychological health in rational emotive behavior therapy. Ziegler, Daniel J.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(1), Spr 2003. pp. 21-36. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The argument has been made that if Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is to survive and prosper in the 21st century, its underlying personality theory requires further development and clarification. In this spirit, the concept of psychological health in REBT theory is examined in the present article. The concept of psychological health in personality theories is discussed briefly, as are the core aspects of the REBT view of emotional disturbance. Given that necessary context, a definition of the essence of psychological health in REBT theory is proposed and discussed. The clinical implications of the proposed definition are then explored.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Ellis and Epictetus: Dialogue vs. method in psychotherapy. Still, Arthur; Dryden, Windy; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(1), Spr 2003. pp. 37-55. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Some recent commentators have found problems in the scientific status of Ellis's REBT, which seem not to be present in Beck's CBT. We argue that this may be partly because they drew differently from the traditions of thought available to them, which appears most clearly in their first published articles. Beck's articles were more in the modern medical tradition, whose history forms part of the search for method leading to abstract knowledge and control that has been so powerful a feature of Western culture. Ellis was more discursive in style and drew more explicitly on the dialogic tradition, in which obstacles to self-awareness and freedom are removed by enlisting the power of reason through question and answer. Socrates and Epictetus are the classical representatives of this tradition, and Ellis's first article shows clear signs of being modelled on Epictetus. Later, however, though continuing in this tradition in his personal style and popular self-help books, Ellis also developed abstract models and methods that belong to the medical tradition. His dual allegiance has made him vulnerable to criticism from both sides.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Alexithymia, irrational beliefs, and the rational-emotive explanation of emotional disturbance. Culhane, Scott E.; Watson, P. J.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 21(1), Spr 2003. pp. 57-72. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: In recent discussions of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Ellis has argued that unconscious processes supplement irrational beliefs in explaining psychopathology. The hypothesis of this investigation was that these unconscious processes reflect alexithymia. University students responded to the three factors from the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Malouff and Schutte Belief Scale (MSBS), 5 subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs, and instruments recording depression, anxiety, and neuroticism. As hypothesized, alexithymia and irrational beliefs predicted greater emotional disturbance while also displaying some small positive correlations with each other. In multiple regressions, both types of variables combined to predict emotional disturbance, with alexithymia explaining the greater amount of variance. Alexithymic difficulties in identifying emotions had uniquely negative mental health implications. The MSBS and the Low Frustration Tolerance subscale were the most noteworthy measures of a pathogenic irrationality. These data supported the claim that the unconscious processes of REBT could be conceptualized in terms of alexithymia.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

A test of the ABC model underlying rational emotive behavior therapy. Ziegler, Daniel J.; Leslie, Yvonne M.; Psychological Reports, Vol 92(1), Feb 2003. pp. 235-240. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The ABC model underlying Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy predicts that people who think more irrationally should respond to daily stressors or hassles differently than do people who think less irrationally. This study tested this aspect of the ABC model. 192 college students were administered the Survey of Personal Beliefs and the Hassles Scale to measure irrational thinking and daily hassles, respectively. Students who scored higher on overall irrational thinking reported a significantly higher frequency of hassles than did those who scored lower on overall irrational thinking, while students who scored higher on awfulizing and low frustration tolerance reported a significantly greater intensity of hassles than did those who scored lower on awfulizing and low frustration tolerance. This indicates support for the ABC model, especially Ellis's construct of irrational beliefs central to this model.

 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 

Overcoming resistance: A rational emotive behavior therapy integrated approach (2nd Ed). Lazarus, Arnold A.; Child & Family Behavior Therapy, Vol 25(3), 2003. pp. 78-80. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews Ellis' book (see record 2003-04406-000) concerning a rational emotive behavior therapy integrated approach. The reviewer states that Ellis has written scores of mental-health books, all preaching a similar message and none highly technical. This book is described as being a little more meaty than most of the others but requiring relatively little technical background to appreciate. Brief summaries of various chapters are presented. The reviewer suggests that one of the more interesting and informative books on resistance is Wachtel's 1982 edited volume, which is seen as having made several points not mentioned by Ellis that would have enriched his work. Specifically, the reviewer found, in a book that purports to be behavioral and integrated, Ellis' omission of the cognitive-behavioral issues presented in Wachtel's book to be regrettable. Further, in contrast to virtually all contemporary behavioral texts, there was no mention of validation, outcome evaluation, and the like. Despite all the limitations noted, however, this text is recommended as a worthy addition to the REBT armamentarium. Clinical psychology students and behavioral clinicians alike will benefit from reading this book, which is well-written and calculated to maintain the reader's interest.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Cognitive behavioral treatment on driving phobia for an Asian Indian male. Gupta, Rashmi; Clinical Gerontologist, Vol 26(3-4), 2003. pp. 165-171. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Presents a case study of using a cognitive behavioral approach for treatment of car driving phobia for an Asian Indian male 55 years of age. The clients treatment started with getting rid of his irrational thoughts and replacing them with positive thoughts of the things/places that would be accessible to him when he learned to drive a car. A cognitive behavioral approach and rational emotive therapy was used. The treatment of alleviating fear of driving succeeded.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Rational emotive behaviour therapy. Theoretical developments. Westoo, Johan; Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Vol 32(4), 2003. pp. 219-220. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Reviews the book edited by W. Dryden which covers present development and possible future directions of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). The subject is covered from within REBT as well as in terms of how it has influenced and been influenced by other fields in psychology. A number of authors, including the founder of REBT, Albert Ellis, contribute to the 11 chapters. These chapters cover: an introduction to the ABC model of REBT; different approaches within the theory and practise of REBT; suggestions for developments and empirical validation of concepts within REBT; the philosophy and values guiding REBT; REBT and cognitive psychology; REBT and social psychology; general semantics and REBT; evolutionary psychology and REBT; and, finally, theoretical developments in REBT as applied to schizophrenia.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Overcoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and Behaviors: New Directions for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy . No authorship indicated; Family Therapy, Vol 30(3), 2003. pp. 194. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is the original form of Cognitive Behavior Therapy. According to this review, its founder, Albert Ellis, now offers an up-to-date description of the main principles and practices of REBT, including the importance of cognition in psychological disturbances. The review discusses the author's goal (see record 2001-18466-000) of helping patients recognize their irrational and destructive beliefs, feelings, and behaviors, and to restructure harmful philosophic and behavioral styles to achieve maximal levels of happiness and productivity. The reviewer also note that other topics considered include: depression, stress management, addiction, marital problems, hypnosis, disposable myths, and other mental health obstacles.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 2002

 

Practicing rational emotive behavior therapy and religious clients. Robb, Hank; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 20(3-4), Win 2002. pp. 169-200. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Rational-emotive behavior therapy is a process of: (1) identifying dysfunctional emotions and behaviors which inhibit more effective pursuit of what clients experience as their deepest and most abiding desires; (2) relating these dysfunctions to irrational beliefs; (3) inducing clients to reduce the controlling role played by these beliefs in their lives and (4) adopting more self-helping beliefs and practices related to their goals thus reducing their dysfunctional emotions and behaviors and increasing their joyful living. This article discusses how this can be done from within an individual's supernatural belief system, whether that system is theistic or nontheistic.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Rational emotive and cognitive behavior therapy with adult male offenders. Altrows, Irwin F.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 20(3-4), Win 2002. pp. 201-222. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Criminal behavior has devastating effects upon society. Cognitive therapy, broadly defined, has been shown to be effective with offenders. Rational-emotive behavior therapy philosophy, in particular, appears ideally suited to treating this heterogeneous population. Although this paper focuses on adult male offenders, the presented principles apply to most offender groups. Fundamentals and research support of empirically supported treatment are presented. Common clinical challenges are discussed, and case examples illustrate general principles.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Executive coaching and REBT: Some comments from the field. Anderson, John P.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 20(3-4), Win 2002. pp. 223-233. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Executive Coaching comprises personal counseling, business advice, and advice about managing for people who are in executive management. This involves a one-to-one helping relationship between coach and client. In each case for which executive coaching is sought, there are problems the client has encountered which requires changes in client behavior. Rational-emotive behavior therapy, with its blend of easy understandability and direct applicability to client problems, is an ideal tool for use in executive coaching. Clients readily understand the A-B-C-D connections and are able to effect changes in behavior. The article includes case examples.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Rational emotive behavior coaching. Kodish, Susan Presby; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 20(3-4), Win 2002. pp. 235-246. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Managed care has led some psychotherapists to seek alternative modes of practice. Personal coaching provides one such approach. To what extent might an rational-emotive behavior therapy practitioner already be "coaching"? How can REBT be meshed with personal coaching? What advantages and problems might ensue? What training is involved? These questions are answered based on the experiences of the author in shifting her work to what she calls Rational Emotive Behavior Coaching.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Applying REBT to workaholic clients. Burwell, Rebecca; Chen, Charles P.; Counselling Psychology Quarterly, Vol 15(3), Sep 2002. pp. 219 - 228. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This paper draws attention to the use of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) in counselling clients who are workaholics. Essential REBT theoretical tenets can help to reveal and explain the causes of workaholic behavior, while REBT techniques can be used effectively in assisting workaholic clients to cope with their cognitive, emotive and behavioral biases. Having explained the general characteristics of workaholism, this paper utilizes a case illustration to demonstrate the basic tenets and techniques of REBT that can be used to help a workaholic client.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Treating panic attack with hypnosis in combination with rational emotive therapy--A case report. Singh, Amool R.; Banerjee, K. R.; Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health, Vol 9(2), Jul 2002. pp. 105-108. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: A single subject research design was employed in treatment of panic attack. Hypnotherapy and Rational Emotive therapeutic approach were applied in combination. Treatment lasted for 16 sessions and results showed increased sense of control, improved self-confidence, elimination of psychopathological symptoms with no recurrence of subsequent panic attack.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

A study of volunteer clients who experienced live sessions of rational emotive behavior therapy in front of a public audience. Ellis, Albert; Joffe, Debbie; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 20(2), Sum 2002. pp. 151-158. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Presents a study of the responses of 100 selected subjects who gave their reactions to experiencing a live session of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) with A. Ellis in front of a public audience. Respondents were volunteers had agreed to receive a demonstration session of REBT for half an hour in front of an audience of approximately 60-150 people, followed by a 20-min period in which the audience could question the volunteer and make therapeutic suggestions. Results of a 12 question research questionnaire show that 97 of the respondents found their session helpful; only 13 felt uncomfortable discussing their problems in public; 99 of them felt that Dr. Ellis focused on their main problem; 94 of them reported that they somewhat or very much used Dr. Ellis's suggestions; 90 of them felt that the suggestions of members of the audience were helpful; and 93 of them said that they would like to work with Dr. Ellis again at a public therapy session. Limitations of this study are discussed.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

The rational teacher: Rational emotive behavior therapy in teacher education. Nucci, Christine; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 20(1), Spr 2002. pp. 15-32. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and Therapy (REBT; A. Ellis, 1973) is a form of humanistic psychology that helps individuals live happier, more productive, more self-actualizing and more creative existences. Under what has been called Rational Emotive Education (REE), REBT has been applied in various educational settings. Having been successful in clinical settings and in reducing both undesirable student behavior and teachers' stress, additional innovative applications of REBT are now being explored and used. This paper describes the incorporation of REBT into yet another unexplored setting within REE: teacher education. Undergraduate Education majors, taking a psychological foundations course and prior to their Student Teaching Practicum, learned REBT principles and methodology and applied them in both learning and teaching contexts. The learning context included situations the Undergraduate Education majors encountered in their college lives. The teaching context included situations they encountered while participating in their preschool field placement. The application of REBT to both contexts allowed the Education majors to address their personal and professional development, including their effectiveness as teachers in training.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Clinically significant change after cognitive restructuring for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Moeller, Andre T.; Steel, Henry R.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 20(1), Spr 2002. pp. 49-64. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Investigated the outcome of cognitive restructuring for adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse in terms of clinically significant change (CSC). 26 participants were assessed for depression, state anxiety, state anger, state guilt and self-esteem before and after 10 weekly sessions of group rational-emotive behavior therapy, and at follow-up after 8 wks. In contrast to a previous analysis of the data in terms of statistical significance, indicating significant improvements on all variables from pre- to posttreatment, an analysis based on CSC showed a differentiated treatment effect. Cognitive restructuring was found to be highly effective in facilitating recovery on anxiety, depression and anger, but less effective for guilt and low self-esteem. Only 3 patients recovered on all 5 variables, while 10 patients showed recovery on at least 4 variables. Relationship to the perpetrator and pre-treatment irrational evaluative beliefs were found to be the best predictors of treatment outcome. A poor response to treatment was associated with the perpetrator being a close family member and with more Other-directed Shoulds, while recovery was associated with the perpetrator being a friend or stranger and with more Awfulizing, Self-directed Shoulds and negative Self-worth beliefs.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

An interview with Albert Ellis about Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Ellis, Albert; Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Mahan, Virginia; North American Journal of Psychology, Vol 4(3), 2002. pp. 355-366. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: A. Ellis answers questions about the last 50 years of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and the changes it has brought about in the field of therapy and counseling. Others topics discussed include his career, aging, and American culture.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Facilitating rational emotive behavior therapy by including religious beliefs. Robb, Harold B. III; Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, Vol 8(1), Win 2001. pp. 29-34. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Though the vast majority of clients will profess religious beliefs and practices, many behavior therapists may be reluctant to include such beliefs and practices in their treatments because they view them as referring to supernatural events and essences that are beyond the scope of the natural, empirical philosophy claimed as the basis for behavior therapy. This is unfortunate because many clients are willing to take therapeutically useful actions based on these beliefs. It is also unnecessary because beliefs about supernatural events, like beliefs about anything, are empirically reportable and functionally testable, even if the events and essences about which these beliefs are held are claimed to be beyond the bounds of naturalistic, empirical inquiry. This article outlines some potentially useful interventions combining the principles and practices of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and religious beliefs.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Accommodating religion and integrating religious material during rational emotive behavior therapy. Nielsen, Stevan Lars; Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, Vol 8(1), Win 2001. pp. 34-39. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) proposes that irrational beliefs evident as absolutistic evaluations cause most self-defeating distress. Absolutistic evaluations are not present in most religious traditions allowing for accommodation of clients' religious beliefs during REBT Religious doctrine usually includes material that contradicts absolutistic evaluations, allowing for integration of religious material with rational-emotive interventions. Brief excerpts from sessions that demonstrate both accommodating and integrating religious belief during REBT are presented. A project seeking to develop a catalog of religious material for integration with REBT is also briefly described.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

To dispute or not to dispute: Ethical REBT with religious clients. Johnson, W. Brad; Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, Vol 8(1), Win 2001. pp. 39-47. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Disputation of irrational beliefs is the most commonly utilized therapeutic strategy among therapists practicing from a Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) framework. Very little attention has been given to the unique ethical concerns that arise when REBT practitioners treat devoutly religious clients or clients presenting with uniquely religious problems. Ignoring client religious variables altogether or directly challenging and disputing specific religious beliefs both appear ethically problematic. This article offers a summary of the changing perspective on the compatibility of REBT and religion and an exploration of the ethics of disputing with religious clients. Finally, the author offers a preliminary model for both general and specialized use of disputational techniques with religious clients.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in the new millennium: A cross-cultural approach. Lega, Leonor I.; Ellis, Albert; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 19(4), Win 2001. pp. 201-222. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: This paper reviews and discusses the results of 5 cross-cultural studies in Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Spain, and USA, using 2 (college students vs. their parents) * 2 (males vs. females) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) match group designs with the Attitudes and Beliefs Inventory subscales as dependent variables, 2 multicultural studies investigating the relationship between some demographic variables (Pan American Health Organization's Index of Violence, and Acculturation) and people's Irrationality, and 2 multidisciplinary studies on the relationship between some medical conditions (skin diseases, and severity of symptoms during menopause) and Irrational Beliefs. The authors conclude by arguing that multicultural and multidisciplinary studies open new and interesting directions to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) research in the new millenium.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

When reason is not enough. Hauck, Paul A.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 19(4), Win 2001. pp. 245-257. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Suggests that the most frequent interventions employed by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) practitioners appear to be cognitive, not emotive nor behavioral. Explanations for this condition are offered and to correct this imbalance a comprehensive description of the assertion process is also offered to rectify it. Behavioral strategies instead are presented along with techniques that rely heavily on pure REBT. A differentiation between tough love and this view of the assertion process is also offered.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

1 The efficacy of rational-emotional counseling program in reducing tension and improving logical thinking among tenth grade female students. = The efficacy of rational-emotional counseling program in reducing tension and improving logical thinking among tenth grade female students. Dawood, Nasima A.; Dirasat: Educational Sciences, Vol 28(2), Sep 2001. pp. 289-311. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a rational-emotive counseling program in reducing tension and improving logical thinking among students. The sample of the study consisted of 446 female students distributed in 12 10th grade sections of 6 schools in Amman. Two sections in each school were randomly selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Students responded to the instruments of the study--Rational and Irrational Thinking Scale and the Anxiety Inventory--before and after applying the educational program. analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) reveals significant differences between experimental and control groups in 5 out of 6 schools. Logical thinking has improved for the experimental groups, and level of tension reduced. Results are discussed and recommendations provided.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

The possible place of cognitive appraisal in the ABC model underlying Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Ziegler, Daniel J.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 19(3), Fal 2001. pp. 137-152. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: In a critique of A. Ellis' Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theory of personality, it has been argued that, among other strategies, REBT personality theory could be significantly advanced by attempting to incorporate within it already established theoretical constructs compatible with the cognitive-behavioral movement. R. Lazarus' theoretical construct of cognitive appraisal seems ideal in this regard. In the present article, the relevant and salient aspects of Lazarus' construct are described. An attempt is then made to delineate the possible place of cognitive appraisal in the ABC model underlying REBT. Finally, the clinical implications of this proposed ABC model refinement are then explored, and an additional REBT therapeutic strategy based upon the cognitive appraisal construct, reappraisal training, is suggested and briefly described.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Can Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy lead to spiritual transformation? Yes, sometimes! Robb, Harold B. III; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 19(3), Fal 2001. pp. 153-161. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Maintains that, when possible, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) has always aimed for thorough-going philosophic change. It instructs people to transform their fundamental approach to life and shows them how to become (1) less prone to disturbance and (2) active seekers of that which, for them, constitutes the zoom of living. Rather than spend time telling people the meaning of life, REBT shows them how they may more frequently, more intensely and for longer periods of time have the experience of full and deep living. By doing so, the author argues that REBT can well be seen as a source of spiritual transformation.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Unconditional self-acceptance and psychological health. Chamberlain, John M.; Haaga, David A. F.; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 19(3), Fal 2001. pp. 163-176. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Low self-esteem is usually considered unhealthy, but according to rational-emotive behavior therapy, any level of self-esteem reflects a dysfunctional habit of globally evaluating one's worth; it would be preferable to accept oneself unconditionally. This hypothesis was tested by examining several correlates of scores on a novel questionnaire measure of unconditional self-acceptance (USA). In a nonclinical adult sample (N = 107, aged 19-81 yrs), statistically controlling for self-esteem, USA was inversely correlated with anxiety symptoms and with narcissism, positively correlated with state mood after imaginal exposure to negative events. Other predicted associations of USA (with depression, happiness, and self-deception) either were not evident or became nonsignificant when self-esteem was taken into account. Discussion centered on the conceptual and operational distinctions between self-esteem and self-acceptance.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Interventions for children with anger problems. Wilde, Jerry; Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol 19(3), Fal 2001. pp. 191-197. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Notes that anger in children has received a lot of attention. This article is a review of several rational-emotive behavioral interventions for children struggling with anger problems. The first step discussed in this article involves helping children learn to recognize their internal signals that they are becoming angry. Children can be taught that there are certain physiological events that occur immediately preceding anger. Another important component of anger management involves the use of distraction, in which children are encouraged to substitute a "happy" or "funny" mental image to interrupt the anger producing thoughts. Finally, a detailed analysis of rational-emotive imagery is provided for children needing more extensive interventions with their anger problems.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Rational and irrational aspects of countertransference. Ellis, Albert; Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 57(8), Aug 2001. pp. 999-1004. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Discusses rational emotive behavior therapy's (REBT) views on rational and irrational aspects of countertransference. Countertransference in therapy stems from biological tendencies and social learning influences that involve mildly or heavily prejudiced thinking, feeling, and behaving. Several reasons are given why it is almost inevitable and has both beneficial and destructive aspects--not either/or but both/and. It is hypothesized that therapists can well make good use of countertransference if they strive to employ it in a preferential, experimental rather than an absolutist musturbating manner.

 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 

Public education and medial dissemination: An interview with Albert Ellis. Hansen, David J.; Behavior Therapist, Vol 24(6), Jun 2001. pp. 117-121. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: For many years Dr. Albert Ellis, author of "Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy", has been involved in a variety of efforts to educate and inform the public about behavior therapy, including substantial involvement with various forms of media. In this interview, Dr. Ellis discusses his experiences and gives suggestions regarding better dissemination of information to the public and the media about behavior therapy.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Cognitive therapy and brain-injury: Theoretical and clinical issues. Kinney, Andrew; Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, Vol 31(2), Sum 2001. pp. 89-102. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: The present manuscript examines the conceptual and practical issues of cognitively-oriented psychotherapeutic methods to those individuals suffering from brain injury. The manuscript briefly reviews various types of brain injuries, associated cognitive and emotional changes, and the implications of cognitive deficits for the practice of cognitively-oriented psychotherapy. In particular, the practice of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy with brain damaged individuals is discussed. The manuscript highlights the cognitive limitations of brain-injured individuals and the necessary adjustments required to develop more effective forms of cognitive psychotherapeutic intervention.

 

 

 


 

 

 


 

 

 

Rational emotive behavior therapy successes and failures: Eight personal perspectives. Weinrach, Stephen G.; Ellis, Albert; MacLaren, Catharine; Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol 79(3), Sum 2001. pp. 259-268. [Peer Reviewed Journal] Abstract: Provided a panel of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) experts with the opportunity to reveal where they succeeded and where they failed at applying REBT to themselves. 8 Ss provided personal examples of their successes and failures in written essays. The essays indicate that Ss actively talked to themselves both rationally and irrationally. There were far more shoulds, oughts, musts, and have to's in the narratives in which Ss described when they failed to use REBT than when they succeeded in using REBT. Rational self-talk was more prevalent in the examples of how REBT was successfully used by the experts.

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 



copyright Dr. Mike Abrams

 

sponsored by Dr. Mike Abrams and Dr. Lidia Abrams of Psychology of New Jersey